license

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license,

in public law, permission by legal authority to engage in certain acts and also the document showing such permission. Some licenses are required for the protection of the public; they assure professional competence (e.g., physicians) or moral fitness (e.g., tavern keepers). Others are designed primarily to raise revenue or to keep a registry (e.g., automobile licenses). It is a crime to engage in a licensed activity without having first procured a license. In property law, a license is a right that the owner grants some other party to make use of his land. Such licenses are revocable at will if they are not part of a contract. They are personal and hence may not be sold; they expire on the death of the grantee. A license to cross another's land is an easementeasement,
in law, the right to use the land of another for a specified purpose, as distinguished from the right to possess that land. If the easement benefits the holder personally and is not associated with any land he owns, it is an easement in gross (e.g.
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 in gross. In patentpatent,
in law, governmental grant of some privilege, property, or authority. Today patent refers to the granting to the inventor of a useful product or process the privilege to exclude others from making that invention.
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 law, a license is a written authority granted by the owner of a patent to another person, empowering the latter to make or use the patented article for a limited period or in a limited territory.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

License

 

(1) An export or import license is an authorization given by a competent state body to carry out foreign trade transactions. Issuing licenses is one of the forms of state control of trade export and import, as well as of foreign exchange. In the capitalist countries the issuing of licenses is used as a way to limit (or completely prohibit) trade with particular countries or groups of countries, protect domestic industry against foreign competition, control the expenditure of foreign exchange, and supplement budget incomes by imposing license charges for issuing the authorization to export and import. In the developing countries the issuing of licenses is used above all to protect the domestic economy from foreign monopolies.

In the socialist countries the issuing of licenses is one form of implementing the state’s monopolies on foreign trade. Licenses are issued by the ministries in charge of foreign trade (in the USSR, the Ministry of Foreign Trade).

(2) An authorization to use an invention or other technical advance, given on the basis of a license agreement or a legal or administrative decision by a competent governmental body, is also known as a license. Ordinarily licenses are issued for an invention that has been patented or for which a patent application has been made. So-called patentless licenses are issued for achievements (including production secrets) that cannot, according to the law of the particular country, be protected by patent or for inventions for which the application to receive a protective document has not been submitted for some reason. The cost for a patent license is usually higher than for a patentless one.

There are three principal types of licenses: simple, exclusive, and full. With a simple license the licenser (holder of the patent) gives the licensee the right to use the invention within the limits established by the agreement, while retaining the right to use it in the same territory and also to grant it to an unlimited range of persons under the same conditions (the licensee does not have the right to issue sublicenses). Under an exclusive license contract, an exclusive right to use the invention within the limits established by the agreement is granted, with the patent holder renouncing his right to use it independently in this territory or to give it to other people. With a full license the holder gives the licensee the right to use all rights based on the patent during the effective period of the patent (this form of license is used comparatively rarely).

On the basis and in the manner established by law, a court or governmental body may, on application by an interested person, establish a mandatory license; that is, it may authorize the use of a patented invention under conditions determined by the body. Such a license is ordinarily issued where the invention is not being used or is used inadequately (from the viewpoint of state interests).

In addition, a mandatory license may be granted if state defense is involved or in cases where an invention is particularly important for the state but no agreement has been reached with the patent holder on issuing licenses. For example, according to Article 112 of the Basic Principles of Civil Legislation of the USSR, such licenses may be given if the Council of Ministers of the USSR so decides.

IU. I. SVIADOSTS

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

license

A written document authorizing a person to perform specific acts, such as the construction or alteration of a building, or the installation, alteration, use, and/or operation of service equipment therein.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

licence

(US), license
a certificate, tag, document, etc., giving official permission to do something
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
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In October, TCBY said it had formed a partnership with Moxie Java International LLC, the largest licenser of coffee shops in the United States.
"It got to the point with Adam where I was saying to him, `Aren't you going to find somebody?' I was worried." LeGrant did settle down three years ago with toy designer and licenser Bruce Aquilar, now 30.
The Federal Agency for Financial Market Supervision is created, integrating supervision of banking, insurance and securities markets into one body, making the new authority the single regulator, licenser, supervisor and enforcer of financial market regulation.
Polarity items must, by definition, lie inside the scope of their licenser; items like any N, in addition, appear to require a c-commanding and overt licenser.
Indian, the licenser of all iris recognition technology says that it is developing a portable iris--imaging device.
The Copyright Clearance Center (Danvers, MA), a licenser of text reproduction rights, has launched Rightslink Permissions, a new service that allows online content providers to license reuse of their copyrighted content directly from their Web sites.
Besides VantageSource's role as a licenser of Arthur Andersen software products and reseller of leading manufacturers' computer hardware and software products, it opened a global distribution center near Sarasota-Bradenton International Airport in September 2000.
IMPAC Europe Limited, a Westvaco Corporation (NYSE: W) subsidiary, has acquired privately held DuBOIS Holdings Limited, global licenser and European manufacturer of the Amaray DVD pack, the world's top-selling DVD package.
Seasonings, which was created in collaboration with DuPont Corian and accessories licenser Gear Holdings Inc., lets customers choose from among a variety of interchangeable component parts to design maple chairs and tables.
Foundrymen worried about who would coordinate the promotion, monitor the quality of the product, provide a medium for the exchange of ideas and disseminate information concerning ductile iron when INCO was no longer serving as a licenser.
This regulation further provides that contracts valued in excess of $200 must be in writing and contain the place and date of the contract; the names and addresses of the licenser and buyer; the total amount payable by the buyers and the terms of payment; the completion date for services rendered; the quality of or type of materials to be used; and the services and work to be carried out.