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an academic degree used in the French system of higher education and also in the universities of Finland, Switzerland, and some Latin American countries. In medieval universities it was an intermediate degree between the baccalaureate and the doctorate. In modern French universities it is the first academic degree. There are licentiates of literature, the sciences, and pedagogy. The degree of licentiate is awarded to persons who in their third or fourth year of study at an institution of higher learning have passed three or four examinations in subjects in their field of specialization. The degree gives the right to teach in a lycée (generally in the provinces) and to take the examination for the Certificat d’Aptitude du Professorat du Second Degré, which enables the holder to teach at a secondary school, including any lycée.