Shakesby, "The status of the little ice age in southern norway, relative age dating of Neoglacial moraines with Schmidt hammer and lichenometry
," Boreas, vol.
Key words: lichens, reindeer, Pribilof Islands, grazing pressure, climate change, island ecosystem, lichenometry
, fur seals
in the Cordillera Blanca, Peru: "Little Ice Age" moraine chronology.
Assuming familiarity with basic geologic principles, he discusses how techniques such as lichenometry
(using the growth rates of lichens) can help determine which faults are still active, time of most recent event, and their frequency and magnitude.
He posited that lichenometry
was a useful dating technique but he stated that more information was required as to their growth rate and why lichen grew where it grew.
Techniques of this science, called lichenometry, were used to determine the age of the giant stone heads on Easter Island.
Using lichenometry (li-chen-omet-ry), scientists use lichens to determine how old rocks and glaciers are.
A variety of methods has been used to identify and date former glacier margins in the Rockies, including geomorphic analysis, stratigraphic and sedimentological observations, radiocarbon dating of fossil plants in glacial sediments, dendrochronology, and lichenometry.
Late Little Ice Age moraines in Garibaldi Park have been dated more precisely by lichenometry and dendrochronology.
This method, called lichenometry
, has been successfully used to date the age of moraines and other glacial features in the Northeast and rock slides in the Sierra Nevada.
The few available chronological data are mainly derived from radiocarbon dating (Denton and Stuiver, 1966; Rampton, 1970), limited dendrochronology (Sharp, 1951), lichenometry
(Denton and Karlen, 1977), and indirect dating of related features such as glacial lake shorelines (Clague and Rampton, 1982).