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water lily, common name for some members of the Nymphaeaceae, a family of freshwater perennial herbs found in most parts of the world and often characterized by large shield-shaped leaves and showy, fragrant blossoms of various colors. Among the plants of the family are the water lilies, lotuses, and pond lilies (called also cow lilies and spatterdocks) of the genera Nymphaea, Nelumbo, and Nuphar, respectively; however, the common names often overlap; e.g., “water lily” is used for most species of the family and even for other unrelated aquatic plants with similar flowers. Most species of Nymphaea in cultivation are tropical, but some of the hardy kinds are native to the United States and to the corresponding temperate areas of the Southern Hemisphere. Both day- and night-blooming species open at fairly definite hours. Included in the genus is the blue or white Egyptian lotus (Nymphaea caerulea or N. lotus, respectively), sacred from remote times and the national emblem of Egypt. The lotus flower is traditional in Egyptian art and architecture, as in the lotus capital. The genus Nelumbo contains two species: the American, or yellow, lotus, also called water chinquapin, is found in E North America; the Indian lotus, also called the sacred lotus or Egyptian bean, is sacred to Hinduism and to several other Asian religions, e.g., Buddhism. Its large pink blossom is used symbolically in religion and art. The seeds of the sacred lotus can remain viable after long periods of dormancy (see seed). Most species of Nuphar are native to North America. Many members of the water lily family have seeds or tubers that have been used for food; however, the fruit of the lotus-eaters of classical literature has been most often identified as that of the jujube of the buckthorn family or the nettle-tree of the elm family. Lotus is also the botanical name for a genus of the pea family. Water lilies are classified in the division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida, order Nymphaeales, family Nymphaeaceae.
a genus of plants of the family Leguminosae. They are perennial and, less frequently, biennial and annual herbs or subshrubs. The leaves are odd-pinnate, with two pairs of lateral pinnae, from which emerge lower leaves that curve toward the base. The flowers are solitary or gathered in heads. The linear cylindrical pods contain many seeds. There are more than 100 species, distributed in Eurasia, Africa, and Australia. Approximately 20 species are found in the USSR, many of which are fodder plants. Bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) forms thickets in wet meadows, as well as along forest edges, shrubbery, embankments, and roads. A valuable pasture plant (before flowering), it is also used as hay. The flowers contain insignificant amounts of a bitter and toxic glycoside; the plant is not toxic when it is in the form of hay or silage. Bird’s-foot trefoil yields nectar. A yellow dye for wool is obtained from its flowers. The species L. uliginosus, which grows in marshy meadows in the western European part of the USSR and in the Caucasus, contains no toxic substances. Both of these species are sometimes cultivated together with other grasses.
a literary quarterly published since 1968 in Cairo by the Association of Writers of the Asian and African Countries, in English, Arabic, and French. For its first six issues it was called Afro-Asian Writings. The journal is directed by the secretary-general of the permanent bureau of the association, Yusuf al-Sibayi, and the editorial board consists of representatives of 12 countries, including the USSR (A. V. Sofronov). It publishes works by contemporary Afro-Asian writers, polemical and critical articles, and material on the history of literature and the arts in the Afro-Asian world. It promotes international friendship and understanding and supports the peoples of Asia and Africa in their struggle for national independence and social progress.
Lotus(IBM Lotus, formerly the Lotus Software Group, www.lotus.com) A major software company founded in 1981 by Mitch Kapor. It achieved outstanding success by introducing Lotus 1-2-3, the first spreadsheet for the IBM PC. Over the years, it developed a variety of applications and helped set industry standards.
In 1989, Lotus introduced Lotus Notes, the first major groupware product, which continues to be a strong contender in this arena. In 1990, it acquired Samna Corporation, developers of the popular, Windows-based Ami word processors. Lotus was acquired by IBM in 1995 and operates as one of its software brands, along with Rational, Tivoli and WebSphere. See Lotus 1-2-3 and Lotus menu.
|Mitchell D. Kapor|
|Mitch Kapor was the founder of Lotus and co-programmer of Lotus 1-2-3. The Lotus spreadsheet helped make the IBM PC an outstanding success within a few years of its introduction. Later, Kapor founded the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF). (Image courtesy of ON Technology, Inc.)|