For example, mutations in the E3 ligase
Parkin occur in Autosomal recessive Parkinson's disease.
Roman et al., "Discovery of novel 5-benzylidenerhodanine and 5-benzylidenethiazolidine-2, 4-dione inhibitors of MurD ligase
," Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol.
In ERAD, the protein region ubiquitinated varies depending on the substrate and the E3 ubiquitin ligase
While the E3 ligase
Ube3A is widely known for its role in the Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, rare forms of mental retardation, Ube3A has also recently been implicated in regulation of dendritic arbor growth in fruit flies.
Cutting edge: The transmembrane E3 ligase
GRAIL ubiquitinates the costimulatory molecule CD40 ligand during the induction of T cell anergy.
Towards the end of the defense process, transcription factors (WRKY and MYB) and regulatory enzyme such as E3 ubiquitin ligases
will regulate the expression of defense-associated genes (18-31).
The resistance level (MICs, 4->256 mg/mL) in vanB is lower than VanA and is attributed to VanB ligase
enzyme that converts D-Ala-D-Ala to D-Ala-D-Lac, perhaps due to less substitution.28 The genes of VanB gene cluster are designated as VanHB, VanXB, VanYB, VanRB, and VanSB.
E3 ubiquitin ligase
NEDD4-1 plays a proto-oncogenic role in tumors through regulating the tumor suppressor PTEN expression by ubiquitination and causing its proteasomal degradation and/or nuclear translocation., Recent studies have found that monoubiquitination of PTEN by NEDD4-1 promotes nuclear accumulation, and polyubiquitination of PTEN inducing its degradation in the cytoplasm, but the concrete mechanism is still unclear.
Zhao, "Ubiquitin E3 ligase
LNX2 is critical for osteoclastogenesis in vitro by regulating M-CSF/RANKL signaling and Notch2," Calcified Tissue International, vol.
TNFAIP3, also known as A20, is an ubiquitin-editing enzyme, which has dual roles in ubiquitin ligase
and deubiquitinase activity.
Hbo1 is an atypical ubiquitin E3 ligase
Intrinsic ubiquitin E3 ligase
activity of histone acetyltransferase Hbol for estrogen receptor [alpha] Masayoshi Iizuka, Takao Susa, Mimi Tamamori-Adachi, Hiroko Okinaga and Tomoki Okazaki Communicated by Takao Sekiya, m.j.a.