The extremely light hydrogen
atoms can escape into space.
"A very small amount of light hydrogen
and helium gases goes a long way to inflate the size of planets," he says.
Because of Mars' relatively low gravity, the planet wasn't able to hold onto the very light hydrogen
atoms, but the heavier oxygen atoms remained behind.
Keratin from hair samples was analysed to determine the ratio of light hydrogen
in the hair.
Both LED and compound semiconductor manufacturing processes typically use high flows of light hydrogen
and highly-corrosive ammonia gasses.
It was the powerful light hydrogen
fuel that made the journey to the moon possible.