The

linear detection ranges and the detection limits of the optical sensors, described in the section 2.2.1, are given in Table 2 with their related references.

Since this article focuses on the accuracy and efficiency of lane detection, we chose the first method (Hough line function in the OpenCV library) to run faster for

linear detection. Moreover, because the Hough transform is insensitive to noise and can process straight lines well, Hough transform is used to extract lane line parameters in each frame of the image sequence for lane detection.

Quantitative detection results of BKV-DNA and JCV-DNA in urine and blood: The lowest detectable limit and

linear detection scope for BKV and JCV detection for renal transplantation recipients was 2x10 3 copies/ml and 5x10 3 ~ 5x10 8 copies/ml.

Simple production method, low cost, quick response, high sensitivity and wide

linear detection range are among the characteristics of the produced nanobiosensor.

Considering that the BS applies a

linear detection strategy, the SINR can be expressed by [1, 27, 30]

However,

linear detection methods require a low complexity of hardware implementation.

Linear equation,

linear detection range, slope, value of [r.sup.2], and the LLD for the toxicants tested are shown in Table 1.

Linear detection schemes including zero-forcing (ZF) and minimum mean square error (MMSE) treat the received signal by the pseudo-inverse and a regularized pseudo-inverse of the channel matrix, respectively.

The assay showed a

linear detection over a 6-log range ([R.sup.2] > .99) and displayed reliable interassay and intra-assay reproducibility.

ZF is a low-complexity

linear detection algorithm that produces

A quantitative assay protocol was validated, revealing a

linear detection range of 0.1-100ng/ml, an average recovery of 95 [+ or -] 8% and an average inter-assay standard deviation of 3%.