Zaborski and Grzesiak [8,9] applied ANN to dystocia detection in Polish Holstein-Friesian Black-and-White cattle, Zaborski et al  used boosted classification trees for the same purpose, Morrison et al [11,12], Basarab et al , Arthur et al , and Johnson  applied linear discriminant function
analysis for dystocia prediction in beef heifers, whereas Piwczynski et al  used decision trees for analyzing factors affecting dystocia in dairy cows.
Linear discriminant function
analysis (DFA) was executed to predict and classify each specimen to their respective populations based on their morphometric features.
The principle of multivariate linear discriminant function
is that measured variables are taken as independent variables whereas sex is a dependent variable.
Specifically, it projects high-dimensional points onto low-dimensional space and uses univariate analysis of variance to establish a linear discriminant function
per criteria of maximum between-class distance and minimum inner-class distance.
In this study, a Bayesian stepwise discriminant model was established, and a corresponding linear discriminant function
The coefficients (linear discriminant function
) cannot be interpreted reliably, but the fitted (classified) values are not affected.
The most common discriminant analysis method adopted by researchers to detect financial frauds using discriminant analysis is the Linear Discriminant Function
The paper presents some useful results on the probability of misclassification when the classical linear discriminant function
is replaced by a linear median discriminant function.
A linear classifier is based on a linear discriminant function
The linear discriminant function
provided the following prediction model for year 2002.
Based on the VC dimension theory of statistical learning theory and the structural risk minimization principle, support vector machines method  converts the practical problem to high-dimensional feature space through nonlinear transformation and realizes the nonlinear discriminant function in the original space by constructing linear discriminant function
in higher space.