lingua franca


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lingua franca

(lĭng`gwə frăng`kə), an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another. Such a language frequently is used primarily for commercial purposes. Examples are the several varieties of the hybrid pidgin English (see pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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); Swahili, a native language of E Africa (see Swahili languageSwahili language,
member of the Bantu group of African languages (see African languages and Bantu languages). Swahili is spoken by 30 million people, chiefly in Tanzania, Kenya, Congo (Kinshasa), Burundi, and Uganda, and serves as a lingua franca for additional millions in E
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); Chinook jargon, a lingua franca formerly used in the American Northwest that was a mixture of Chinook, other Native American languages, English, and French; and a variety of Malay (called bazaar Malay), which served as a compromise language in the area of British Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, and neighboring regions (see Malayo-Polynesian languagesMalayo-Polynesian languages
, sometimes also called Austronesian languages
, family of languages estimated at from 300 to 500 tongues and understood by approximately 300 million people in Madagascar; the Malay Peninsula; Indonesia and New Guinea; the Philippines;
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). The original lingua franca was a tongue actually called Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that was employed for commerce in the Mediterranean area during the Middle Ages. Now extinct, it had Italian as its base with an admixture of words from Spanish, French, Greek, and Arabic. The designation "Lingua Franca" [language of the Franks] came about because the Arabs in the medieval period used to refer to Western Europeans in general as "Franks." Occasionally the term lingua franca is applied to a fully established formal language; thus formerly it was said that French was the lingua franca of diplomacy.

Bibliography

See H. R. Kahane et al., The Lingua Franca in the Levant (1958); R. A. Hall, Jr., Pidgin and Creole Languages (1966); B. Heine, Status and Use of African Lingua Francas (1970).

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lingua franca

It implies a common, or standard, language. The term is used in the information industry to refer to the most-widely used format, protocol or command language for a particular purpose. Its actual meaning is "Frankish language," which is spoken in various Mediterranean ports and is a combination of Italian, Spanish, French, Greek, Arabic and Turkish. Its original meaning also implies a hybrid or mixture of languages.
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References in periodicals archive ?
a standard UK or US variant of English--depending on the target audience, even though especially audio and video material with an English lingua franca approach would offer opportunities for learning in different types of authentic settings.
Malimas explained that she and fellow producers, Sandoval, Jhett Tolentino and Carlo Velayo, have aimed for 'Lingua Franca' to premiere at the Venice Days because 'it is one of the world's most prestigious festivals.
Though the language was lingua franca it was facing many challenges, she said.
Lingua Franca is not a product of legislation but a natural response and result for the need for communication.
Words like "co-operation" and "common front" are part of the new lingua franca of Northern Ontario.
Eyal Press, a former contributing editor at Lingua Franca who's written for The Atlantic Monthly, the New York Times and other publications, has been contributing to The Nation since 1994.
Requirements are, therefore, the lingua franca that operators and developers use to establish a common understanding of the operators' needs and the developers' intentions.
Instead, these radicals or rebels, as they like to call themselves, propose a different explanation according to which (if I have understood it correctly) the Uralic languages originate in a lingua franca, i.e.
By basing information on a binary lingua franca, it's now possible to sift through masses of data to find just what you need."
Since the Second World War, English has emerged as the world's lingua franca. For all practical purposes, individuals wishing to be players on the world stage must have a mastery of the English language.
In a February 2001 interview with Lingua Franca magazine about the neoconservative movement, Buckley was asked what his politics would be like if he were "an enfant terrible graduating from college in 2000." "I'd be a socialist," replied Buckley.