lingua franca

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lingua franca

(lĭng`gwə frăng`kə), an auxiliary language, generally of a hybrid and partially developed nature, that is employed over an extensive area by people speaking different and mutually unintelligible tongues in order to communicate with one another. Such a language frequently is used primarily for commercial purposes. Examples are the several varieties of the hybrid pidgin English (see pidginpidgin
, a lingua franca that is not the mother tongue of anyone using it and that has a simplified grammar and a restricted, often polyglot vocabulary. The earliest documented pidgin is the Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that developed among merchants and traders in the Mediterranean
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); Swahili, a native language of E Africa (see Swahili languageSwahili language,
member of the Bantu group of African languages (see African languages and Bantu languages). Swahili is spoken by 30 million people, chiefly in Tanzania, Kenya, Congo (Kinshasa), Burundi, and Uganda, and serves as a lingua franca for additional millions in E
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); Chinook jargon, a lingua franca formerly used in the American Northwest that was a mixture of Chinook, other Native American languages, English, and French; and a variety of Malay (called bazaar Malay), which served as a compromise language in the area of British Malaya, the Dutch East Indies, and neighboring regions (see Malayo-Polynesian languagesMalayo-Polynesian languages
, sometimes also called Austronesian languages
, family of languages estimated at from 300 to 500 tongues and understood by approximately 300 million people in Madagascar; the Malay Peninsula; Indonesia and New Guinea; the Philippines;
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). The original lingua franca was a tongue actually called Lingua Franca (or Sabir) that was employed for commerce in the Mediterranean area during the Middle Ages. Now extinct, it had Italian as its base with an admixture of words from Spanish, French, Greek, and Arabic. The designation "Lingua Franca" [language of the Franks] came about because the Arabs in the medieval period used to refer to Western Europeans in general as "Franks." Occasionally the term lingua franca is applied to a fully established formal language; thus formerly it was said that French was the lingua franca of diplomacy.

Bibliography

See H. R. Kahane et al., The Lingua Franca in the Levant (1958); R. A. Hall, Jr., Pidgin and Creole Languages (1966); B. Heine, Status and Use of African Lingua Francas (1970).

lingua franca

It implies a common, or standard, language. The term is used in the information industry to refer to the most-widely used format, protocol or command language for a particular purpose. Its actual meaning is "Frankish language," which is spoken in various Mediterranean ports and is a combination of Italian, Spanish, French, Greek, Arabic and Turkish. Its original meaning also implies a hybrid or mixture of languages.
References in periodicals archive ?
elf research has focused on detailing the language use patterns and communicative properties of lingua franca interactions, a major focus of which has been the extent to which speakers' linguistic repertoires are not only diverse but are also drawn on in dynamic and inventive ways.
The focus on language in contemporary materials appears to make no provision for language diversity or for any of the pragmatic strategies found to be important in lingua franca interaction, such as the use of accommodation skills.
From the point of view of ELF research, especially in terms of what this has told us about the value of NNSE in lingua franca interaction, it remains unclear how uniquely promoting a British English model for language production can enhance a learner's ability to communicate.
It is a major lingua franca in countries such as, Tanzania and Kenya, as well as major cities of Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda, the Comoros, and Somali.
He showed his commitment to this call for Kiswahili as a continental lingua franca by championing its adoption by some Ghanaian public institutions.
The primary purpose for introducing the language was to give students from Eastern and Central Africa an opportunity to learn and build their proficiency in the Kiswahili language, which is the lingua franca in those parts of Africa, and to reflect the school's philosophy of Pan-Africanism.
(46) Challenging the stereotypes of correct usage in connection with English lingua franca (ELF) can be healthy, as certain aspects of idiomaticity are difficult to master for E2 speakers; the role of such culturally loaded vocabulary items and idioms can be questioned in an international language.
(53) In a Nordic study, (54) it was shown that Finnish writers tend to be more direct than Swedes in English lingua franca email messages; yet, professional communication works.
The development of language training in Finland reflects the rise of the English language as a lingua franca (ELF), a common language.
If we take the idea of the Uralic languages originating in an auxiliary language, a lingua franca, as an example it is obvious that very little has actually been presented to support this idea, rather it is the idea itself that is constantly being put forward, not the evidence.
But if Uralistics has little or nothing to offer in support of an original Uralic lingua franca, what can be done to achieve a decisive breakthrough?
Taagepera (2000 : 384) defines a lingua franca in the following way: "[--] sometimes a mix of disparate languages emerges, combining words from various sources and simplifying the grammar down to the lowest common denominator (and then possibly starting to build a new grammatical structure).