Lining

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lining

1. 
a. material used to line a garment, curtain, etc.
b. (as modifier): lining satin
2. Civil engineering a layer of concrete, brick, or timber, etc., used in canals to prevent them leaking or in tunnels or shafts to prevent them falling in
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

Lining

Material which covers any interior surface, such as a framework around a door or window or boarding that covers interior surfaces of a building.
Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture Copyright © 2012, 2002, 1998 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Lining

 

(Russian, garnisazh; from French garnissage), a hard protective layer formed during a melting process on the inner (working) surface of some metallurgical units subjected to intensive cooling. In furnaces with cooled lining, the lining is principally obtained as a result of physical and chemical interacting of the charge, gases, and the material of the cooled walls; in furnaces without lining it is obtained as a result of intensive water cooling of the molten or softened charge products in metallic cooling units (usually copper or steel). In the last case, thin crusts of solidified products are formed, with the thickness depending on melting conditions, especially on the furnace’s cooling speed.


Lining

 

(or casing), a member that reinforces an underground structure and imparts to it the shape required for normal use.

In contrast to temporary mine support, lining is designed for permanent use. The shape and size of lining are determined by the dimensions, depth of bedding, and purpose of the underground structure (tunnels, underground hydroelectric power plants, garages, warehouses, and wine cellars), and also by the nature of the loads acting on the structure (rock pressure, hydrostatic pressure, and traveling loads). Lining may be made from cast concrete and reinforced concrete, prefabricated concrete, or metal (cast iron or, less frequently, steel). Tunnel lining is characterized by great diversity.

Cast concrete and reinforced-concrete lining is used mainly in tunnels of highly complex design and large cross section, usually driven by the heading method. The tunnels may be rectangular (the most common type), as well as oval or parabolic. As of 1974, research and development work on the introduction of a new type of cast-pressed lining was under way. Such lining is particularly suitable for the construction of hydraulic-engineering tunnels and open-line subway tunnels that are driven by the shield method and is distinguished by high strength and water-impermeability and by the smoothness of the inside surface.

Prefabricated lining may be curved or rectilinear. The first type is used mainly for tunnels driven by the shield or erector method (mainly subway tunnels). Prefabricated curved lining may be made from cast iron or reinforced concrete. Cast-iron lining (cast-iron tubes) is used in water-saturated rock with high hydrostatic pressure; reinforced-concrete lining may have a solid cross section, or it may be ribbed. It is used in comparatively dry rock. Imperviousness to water is achieved by waterproofing the joints (for example, with expanding cement) or by grouting the space around the lining with a mixture of sand and cement (or bentonite). If the tunnel is being driven in a waterlogged area, prefabricated reinforced-concrete lining can be made water-impermeable by means of an internal waterproof cover in the form of a jacket or by providing an external or internal shield during manufacture of lining modules. In weak clay and sand soils (particularly in the construction of shallow tunnels), prefabricated reinforced-concrete lining that is compressed by the rock can be used effectively; thus, the rock mass and the lining work together to prevent settling of the upper soil layers. Prefabricated reinforced-concrete lining with a rectilinear contour has been widely used for subway tunnels constructed by the trench method. This type of lining can be made water-impermeable by applying a waterproofing coating to the outside or by gluing on a waterproofing material in roll form (waterproof glass fabric, polyethylene, and so on). The waterproof covering is applied during production of lining modules.

REFERENCES

Chasovitin, P. A. Tonnel’nye obdelki iz sbornogo zhelezobetona. Moscow, 1959.
Tonneli i metropoliteny. Edited by V. P. Volkov. Moscow, 1970.

IA. G. GEL’MAN


Lining

 

(in Russian, futerovka), a protective covering on the inner surface of a heat-producing unit and its components—for example, a furnace, a firebox, a ladle, a flue, or piping—and of chemical equipment, such as an etching bath. A lining may be made of bricks, slabs, blocks, concrete, a rammed material, or shotcrete. Depending on the purpose of the lining and on the type of material used, a lining may be refractory, acidproof, or heat-insulating.

In Russian, the term futerovka is sometimes also applied to a facing—that is, to a protective covering on the outer surface of a component—if the component’s outer surface is subjected to, for example, heat fluxes or corrosive agents.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

lining

[′līn·iŋ]
(materials)
A material used to protect inner surfaces, as of tunnels, pipes, or process equipment.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

lining

1. Material which covers any interior surface, such as framework around a door or window, or boarding which covers the interior surfaces of a building.
2. Same as flue lining.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Automotive Brake Linings Market is expected to witness 7.8% CAGR during the forecast period, 2019 to 2025, according to latest depth analysis report on Global Automotive Brake Linings Market by Material, Vehicle Type, Sales Channel and Region - Global Forecast till 2025, published by Market Research Future.
Kingdom, "The design of shaft linings to resist time dependent deformation in evaporite rocks," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Shaft Design and Construction, Londres, UK, April 2012.
These wear-resistant linings offer excellent abrasion and impact resistance and are specifically constructed for use wherever wear and abrasion are a problem.
'The Koroseal lining system from Witt Linings is a class-leading solution for this type of environment and we are pleased to hear that Lufthansa Technik is considering switching to this solution for its other four tanks."
Originally, the stability of aged tunnel linings was mainly evaluated based on the visual inspection in Japan [5].
Danish-based Hempel acquired Blome International in 2012 in order to gain technologies and linings critical to its business, including products that are now a part of Hempel's Versiline range of high performance linings for aggressive industrial environments.
Campbell first announced its intention to move away from BPA linings in February 2012, in response to consumer feedback.
The other advantage of magnetic linings is simplified structure and easy installation.
New installations provide for the pipe to receive a cement mortar lining. However, before about 1930, many water mains were installed without a proper lining and in most cases before cement linings were commonly available to the waterworks trade.
The market segmentation based on application include (Marine, Automotive, Oil & Gas, Construction, Power Generation, Chemical Industry, Others), which have constantly steered the demand for Linings.