lipid


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lipid

, lipide
Biochem any of a large group of organic compounds that are esters of fatty acids (simple lipids, such as fats and waxes) or closely related substances (compound lipids, such as phospholipids): usually insoluble in water but soluble in alcohol and other organic solvents. They are important structural materials in living organisms

Lipid

One of a class of compounds which contains long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (cyclic or acyclic) and their derivatives, such as acids (fatty acids), alcohols, amines, amino alcohols, and aldehydes. The presence of the long aliphatic chain as the characteristic component of lipids confers distinct solubility properties on the simpler members of this class of naturally occurring compounds.

The lipids are generally classified into the following groups:

  • A. Simple lipids
  •  
    • 1. Triglycerides or fats and oils are fatty acid esters of glycerol. Examples are lard, corn oil, cottonseed oil, and butter.
    • 2. Waxes are fatty acid esters of long-chain alcohols. Examples are beeswax, spermaceti, and carnauba wax.
    • 3. Steroids are lipids derived from partially or completely hydrogenated phenanthrene. Examples are cholesterol and ergosterol.
  •  B. Complex lipids
  •  
    • 1. Phosphatides or phospholipids are lipids which contain phosphorus and, in many instances, nitrogen. Examples are lecithin, cephalin, and phosphatidyl inositol.
    • 2. Glycolipids are lipids which contain carbohydrate residues. Examples are sterol glycosides, cerebrosides, and plant phytoglycolipids.
    • 3. Sphingolipids are lipids containing the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine and its derivatives. Examples are sphingomyelins, ceramides, and cerebrosides.

Lipids are present in all living cells, but the proportion varies from tissue to tissue. The triglycerides accumulate in certain areas, such as adipose tissue in the human being and in the seeds of plants, where they represent a form of energy storage. The more complex lipids occur closely linked with protein in the membranes of cells and of subcellular particles. More active tissues generally have a higher complex lipid content; for example, the brain, liver, kidney, lung, and blood contain the highest concentration of phosphatides in the mammal. See Fat and oil, Fat and oil (food), Glycolipid, Sphingolipid, Steroid, Terpene, Triglyceride, Vitamin, Wax, animal and vegetable

lipid

[′lip·əd]
(biochemistry)
One of a class of compounds which contain long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, such as fatty acids, alcohols, amines, amino alcohols, and aldehydes; includes waxes, fats, and derived compounds. Also known as lipin; lipoid.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Deputy Commissioner has directed all the Assistant Commissioners to inspect different areas and ensured ban on use of animal lipid material in Chapal Kabab prepareations.
[13] It is, therefore, important to know all menopause-related diseases including lipid derangements of the women so necessary action can be taken for their healthy life in or after menopause.
For the method to achieve the higher lipid yields reported in literature and be feasible for microalgal lipid extraction in biodiesel production, parameters such as field strength and solvent type should be optimized.
Hoffman and her colleagues assessed lipid composition of infected cells in an in vitro study of cell lines, which were assessed 8-11 days post infection, according to the report published in BBA: Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids.
Busik, along with graduate student Nermin Kady, showed that these connecting structures contain omega-linked acyl-very long-chain ceramides - elongated lipids that appear to strengthen this barrier.
Systane Balance contains Alcon's LipiTech System, a proprietary emulsion technology that is said to allow the polar and non-polar lipids in Systane to exist as a metastable microemulsion.
Currently, worldwide, many laboratories follow the policy of an overnight fast for a minimum of 8 hours before obtaining samples for testing the lipid profile.
For liposome with tetraether lipids, only complete vesicles and no fracture planes were visible in Cryo-SEM, indicating the tight packaging of tetraether lipids within the lipid bilayer.
In this cross-sectional study comprising of 187 Latin-American patients, in addition to liver function tests, authors have also analyzed various oxidative stress markers in the blood such as lipid peroxidation, carbonylated protein and glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG).
In this study, the lipid content was represented as a linear function of nitrogen quota which was calculated based on the mass balance in the growth medium to study lipid accumulation.
The results showed that whether a compound exhibited antioxidant or pro-oxidant behavior depended on its polarity, concentration, oxidation time and the method used to determine lipid oxidation.