liposome

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liposome

(lī`pəsōm', lĭp`ə–), microscopic, fluid-filled pouch whose walls are made of layers of phospholipidsphospholipid
, lipid that in its simplest form is composed of glycerol bonded to two fatty acids and a phosphate group. The resulting compound called phosphatidic acid contains a region (the fatty acid component) that is fat-soluble along with a region (the charged phosphate
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 identical to the phospholipids that make up cell membranes. Liposomes are used to deliver certain vaccines, enzymes, or drugs (e.g., insulin and some cancer drugs) to the body. When used in the delivery of certain cancer drugs, liposomes help to shield healthy cells from the drugs' toxicity and prevent their concentration in vulnerable tissues (e.g., the kidneys, and liver), lessening or eliminating the common side effects of nausea, fatigue, and hair loss. Liposomes are especially effective in treating diseases that affect the phagocytes of the immune system because they tend to accumulate in the phagocytes, which recognize them as foreign invaders. They have also been used experimentally to carry normal genes into a cell in order to replace defective, disease-causing genes (see gene therapygene therapy,
the use of genes and the techniques of genetic engineering in the treatment of a genetic disorder or chronic disease. There are many techniques of gene therapy, all of them still in experimental stages.
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). Liposomes are sometimes used in cosmetics because of their moisturizing qualities.

Liposomes were first produced in England in 1961 by Alec D. Bangham, who was studying phospholipids and blood clotting. It was found that phospholipids combined with water immediately formed a sphere because one end of each molecule is water soluble, while the opposite end is water insoluble. Water-soluble medications added to the water were trapped inside the aggregation of the hydrophobic ends; fat-soluble medications were incorporated into the phospholipid layer.

In some cases liposomes attach to cellular membranes and appear to fuse with them, releasing their contents into the cell. Sometimes they are taken up by the cell, and their phospholipids are incorporated into the cell membrane while the drug trapped inside is released. In the case of phagocytic cells, the liposomes are taken up, the phospholipid walls are acted upon by organelles called lysosomes, and the medication is released. Liposomal delivery systems are still largely experimental; the precise mechanisms of their action in the body are under study, as are ways in which to target them to specific diseased tissues.

liposome

[′lip·ə‚sōm]
(cell and molecular biology)
One of the fatty droplets occurring in the cytoplasm, particularly of an egg.
References in periodicals archive ?
There are numerous liposome-based anticancer agents being marketed as a liposomal preparation, which are commonly known as Caelyx/Doxil, Myocet, DOX-SL, Lipo-Dox, and DaunoXome.
The composition of the liposomal suspension with different present of lipid and cholesterol to water with and without salts is given by the parameter concentration.
The ongoing Phase I clinical trial is a dose-escalating study to determine the safety and tolerance of escalating doses of Liposomal Grb-2, as well as the optimal biologically active dose for further development.
Graeme Shaw, a medical doctor who uses liposomal glutathione both alone and with intravenous (IV) glutathione.
The occurrence of severe hyperphosphatemia during treatment with high-dose liposomal amphotericin was reported in a pediatric patient (3), but the possibility of pseudohyperphosphatemia caused by interference of liposomal amphotericin B in the phosphorus assay was not addressed.
All patients received 24 mg liposomal amphotericin B via a jet nebulizer three times a week for 30-60 days, or until bronchial anastomoses healed.
Bio-Path Holdings, a biotechnology company, has completed enrolment of patients in Cohort 7 of its Phase Ib clinical trial that is evaluating the toxicity of the firm's compound, Liposomal Grb-2, in acute myeloid leukaemia, it was reported on Monday.
This proprietary next-generation liposomal technology prolongs release of amikacin in the lung while minimizing systemic exposure.
In a review of the medical literature, liposomal lidocaine won out over other topical agents or placebo in each of five studies of pain control during cutaneous laser treatments, laser hair removal, medium-depth chemical peel, venipuncture in children, and IV insertion in children, said Dr.
donovani complex Liposomal Improved amphotericin B 3 L.
Bio-Path has been in discussions over the last six months with senior breast cancer researchers at the MD Anderson Cancer Center regarding the potential of its lead drug candidate Liposomal Grb-2 to treat TNBC and IBC.
M2 EQUITYBITES-February 10, 2015-Bio-Path Holdings moves Liposomal Grb-2 into the next phase of clinical development in AML patients