Choline as a main lipotropic agent, has an important role in the metabolism of fatty acids in poultry and increases the biodegradation of fatty acids to prevent the storage of fat in tissues (Azadmanesh and Jahanian 2014).
Although the effects of dietary choline and carnitine on growth performance and fat deposition in poultry were reported by many authors (Azadmanesh and Jahanian 2014; Wen et al., 2014; Xu et al., 2003; Keralapurath et al., 2010), the data regarding the effect of these lipotropic agents on hypertensive response were not given in their studies.
Choline is a well-known lipotropic factor responsible for the mobilisation of liver fat in the form of lipoproteins toward extra-hepatic tissues where they may be metabolised or deposited [42,43].
These findings strongly indicate that improvement in zootechnical parameters (BW and FCR) and alleviation of AST activity, liver histopathology and lipid content (abdominal fat and breast muscle) of the PHF supplemented group to normal could be attributed to its hepatoprotective and lipotropic activity.
The mode of actions for these beneficial effects of superdosing phytase has been associated with more liberated available P from phytate-P, which can decrease its anti-nutritional effect and generate myoinositol showing vitamin like or lipotropic
BiomaxX Energy Nutrition Sublingual Sprays are available in 1 ounce bottles of two formulas: Vitamin B-12 and Vitamin B12 Lipotropic
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On December 21, 2000, she received a blood test for a life insurance policy that revealed an ALT of 13, so she was given Lipotropic
: 5 QD (methionine -- 1,000 mg; choline -- 2000 mg and inositol -- 650 mg) to aid her hepatic function.
activity of choline, betaine, and methionine in ducklings.
Select nutrients are also based on theoretical thinking rather than scientific research and include supplements such as inositol and choline that exert a "lipotropic
" effect, meaning that they promote the removal of fat from the liver.
Choline as a lipotropic
factor involves in metabolism and mobilization of liver lipids and prevents the abnormal accumulation of fat and development of fatty liver.
These results are not in agreement with many studies (Urbanczyk, 1997; Wang and Xu, 1999; Wang et al., 2000a; Wang et al., 2000b; Matthews et al., 2001b; Yu et al., 2001; Fernandez-Figares et al., 2002; Zou and Lu, 2002; Yu et al., 2004; Feng et al., 2006), but in contrast with the aforementioned lipotropic
properties of betaine, increases in energy retention may enhance fat accretion.