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large carnivore of the catcat,
name applied broadly to the carnivorous mammals constituting the family Felidae, and specifically to the domestic cat, Felis catus. The great roaring cats, the lion, tiger, and leopard are anatomically very similar to one another and constitute the genus
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 family, Panthera leo, found in open country in Africa, with a few surviving in India. Lions have short-haired coats of tawny brown, with the tail ending in a dark tuft. Most males have black or tawny manes of varying length growing from the head, neck, and shoulders. The mane may be quite long and magnificent, giving the lion the imposing appearance that has led it to be known as king of the beasts in folklore; studies indicate that long manes are typical mainly of cooler climate lions. Grown males are about 9 ft (2.7 m) long including the 3-ft (90-cm) tail, stand about 3 ft (90 cm) at the shoulder, and weigh up to 400 lb (180 kg). Females are smaller and lack manes. The lion is anatomically very similar to the tigertiger,
large carnivore of the cat family, Panthera tigris, found in the forests of Asia. There are six subspecies of P. tigris: Amur or Siberian, Sumatran, Malayan, North Indochinese, Bengal, and South China or Amoy.
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 although it is different in habitat and way of life.

Lions are the only cats that are social rather than solitary. They usually live in groups called prides, which vary in composition but may occasionally include as many as 30 individuals. The lionesses do a considerable part of the hunting. There is no definite breeding season. They inhabit grasslands, scrubland, and semidesert areas, where they hunt antelope, zebra, and other large herbivorous animals, as well as domestic stock. Lions also eat carrion. They do not normally attack humans unless wounded or provoked; under unusual conditions they may prey on humans, but even old and sick animals are more likely to subsist on rodents, insects, and other small prey.

In early historic times lions ranged over Eurasia from E Europe to India and over all of Africa. They were eliminated from Europe and the Middle East by the beginning of the 2d cent. A.D. and from most of the rest of their range in recent times. They are now numerous only in E and S Africa, although even there they are severely reduced in numbers. The lion subspecies of central and especially W Africa are even more severely reduced. At the beginning of the 20th cent. a few pairs remained in India and were preserved as tourist attractions in the Gir forest (now Gir National Park) of Gujarat state in W India. This group had increased to 290 individuals in 1955 but, although still protected, has been somewhat smaller since; they are the only remaining Asiatic lions. In early Christian symbolism the lion represented Jesus and has also represented St. Mark. For the constellation and sign of the zodiac see LeoLeo
[Lat.,=the lion], northern constellation lying S of Ursa Major and on the ecliptic (apparent path of the sun through the heavens) between Cancer and Virgo; it is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
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Lions are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Mammalia, order Carnivora, family Felidae.


See the many books by J. Adamson; G. B. Schaller, The Serengeti Lion (1972); A. E. Pease, The Book of the Lion (1986).


(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

The Lion is a popular name for the sign Leo.



(Panthera leo), a predatory mammal of the family Felidae. It has a powerfully built body with a large head; the tip of the tail has a tuft of black hair. The animal stands up to 120 cm high at the shoulder and weighs up to 280 kg. The body length measures up to 210 cm and the tail length up to 110 cm. The lion possesses great strength and adroitness. The hair is short and of tawny or sandy color; the belly is light. Part of the head, the neck, the chest, and part of the belly are covered with long shaggy hair (mane) ranging from a light tawny color to black. The young are spotted. There are two subspecies—the African lion and the Asian lion.

In the Quaternary Period the lion was distributed throughout Africa (except in the dense tropical forests of the western part), in southern Europe, and in Southwest Asia. It has been preserved only in the eastern and southern parts of Equatorial Africa (where it is protected in preserves) and in Asia (northwest India, in the Gir Hill Forest preserve). The lion inhabits savannas, mountain semideserts, and riparian forests in deserts. It hunts at twilight and at night, singly, in pairs, in families, or in groups (called prides) of five to ten individuals; it hunts for antelope, buffalo, zebra, deer, and domestic cattle. It also feeds on birds, reptiles, and locusts. It rarely attacks man. The gestation period is about 116 days. The young (one to six, usually three or four) are born weighing about 400 g and with their eyes open. They attain sexual maturity at three years. The lion’s life expectancy is 30 to 35 years. Hybrids between a lion and a tiger and a lion and a leopard are encountered. The lion’s vocal sounds include loud roars and deep growls. The lion differs from other large cats in its calm disposition; it is easily tamed and submits to training. It reproduces in captivity.


What does it mean when you dream about a lion?

The lion symbolizes daring, strength, and ferocity. As king of the jungle, it also symbolizes royalty, leadership, and dominion (“the lion’s share”). The specific implication depends on the dreamer’s associations with the lion in the dream.


(vertebrate zoology)
Felis leo. A large carnivorous mammal of the family Felidae distinguished by a tawny coat and blackish tufted tail, with a heavy blackish or dark-brown mane in the male.




symbol expressing power and courage of Jesus. [Christian Symbolism: N.T.: Revelation 5:5]
See: Christ


personification of intrepidity. [Animal Symbolism: Hall, 193]


sleeps with eyes open. [Christian Symbolism: Appleton, 59]


symbol of the sun gods; corresponds to the sun. [Western Symbolism: Cirlot, 189–190]
See: Sun


a large gregarious predatory feline mammal, Panthera leo, of open country in parts of Africa and India, having a tawny yellow coat and, in the male, a shaggy mane


(1) (LiOn) See lithium ion.

(2) (L10N) (L-ocalizatio-N) See l10n.

(3) Version 10.7 of the Mac OS X operating system. Introduced in 2011, it is a major upgrade with numerous enhancements as well as iPad-like features. For example, apps can be run from an icon grid like Apple's iDevices (see Launchpad); apps can display full screen, and they can resume where the user left off when re-opened.

Applications automatically save their data without user intervention, and the Mac's Exposé thumbnails of open windows and Spaces desktops were combined into one Mission Control function. The Mail app was redesigned like the iPad version, and new gestures were added to the trackpad. Befuddling users until they found out how to set it back the old way, the mouse scroll wheel direction was reversed to emulate trackpad movement.

No More DVD Installation
Lion was the first Mac OS version from Apple that was no longer offered via optical disc. Lion is available as a download or on a USB drive. See Mac OS X.

A Mac and an iPad
Along with many new features, Lion provides an icon grid for launching apps like the iPad (see Launchpad). (Image courtesy of Apple, Inc.)


Carl Jung said that all wild animals indicate latent affects (feelings and emotions that we do not readily deal with). They are also symbolic of dangers (hurtful and negative things) being “swallowed” by the unconscious. The lion is a symbol of social distinction and leadership. The interpretation depends on the circumstances and the interactions with the lion.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the best of these tributes there was also a noticeable willingness to see Mailer's passing as that of the last of the literary lions, the last of a generation of American novelists who brought a war-hardened scepticism to bear upon new postwar tyrannies--as the Observer's editorial "Farewell to the Tough Guy" lamented, "in a world where novelists are nurtured in creative writing schools and garlanded by Oprah, he is taking a rougher-edged era with him to the grave.
It's almost scandalous to see one of America's literary lions toying with such an inflammatory topic--and in the guise of a thriller, no less.
Blak's interviews and meetings with such contemporary cultural luminaries and literary lions as musician Kim Larsen, novelist Peter Hoeg, songwriter Erik Leth, poet Henrik Nordbrandt, and screenwriter/director Erik Balling provide insights into cultural trends and history in Denmark past and present.
A never-published work by literary lions Aldous Huxley and Christopher Isherwood is on the way to the public arena big time - thanks to Sharon Stone.
Probably the most famous of the charity galas is the annual Literary Lions dinner, for which guests like Oscar de la Renta and Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis pay up to $1,500 to hobnob with renowned authors.
Mark Twain, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Kurt Vonnegut and William Faulkner are just some of the national literary lions whose names are decorating New York theater marquees this season.
Prague literary lions say the famously exacting emigre scribe, who moved to France in the '70s to escape communist censorship, worried that unless he approved a Czech release, unauthorized copies of the novel would pop up.
Not only are the literary lions missing, but so is the literary sensibility; why write a show about a great author if you're going to treat him as if he were Paris Hilton?
Housman, but O'Brien faces the same challenge, making these literary lions seem human, and he mostly succeeds.
NEW YORK Now that they're the undisputed heavyweights of the specialized film world, Miramax Films co-chairmen Bob and Harvey Weinstein want to become literary lions as well.