Litter

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litter

1. a group of offspring produced at one birth by a mammal such as a sow
2. a layer of partly decomposed leaves, twigs, etc., on the ground in a wood or forest
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Litter

 

a layer of the remains of dead plants on the soil surface in a forest, meadow, or steppe. Its thickness varies from a fraction of a centimeter to 30 cm or greater. In spruce forests of the taiga zone, there are 40–80 tons of litter per hectare (ha), and in oak forests of the forest steppe 8–15 tons per ha.


Litter

 

the dead branches, leaves, and other parts of plants that have fallen onto the ground or the bottom of a body of water. The annual accumulation of such organic matter on the soil surface and in the forest is called litter.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The next study (Matos et al., 1997) on the use of different statistical models (linear, threshold, Poisson and negative binomial sire models, as well as linear, threshold, Poisson and negative binomial animal models) for reproductive traits prediction (fertility, litter size and ovulation rate) in Rambouillet and Finnsheep sheep revealed their moderate predictive performance.
The observed differences do not indicate a systematic relationship between the size of the oviducts and litter size. They also did not show significant differences concerning the weight and volume of the ovaries in the compared groups of gilts.
Correlation between capacitation status before and after capacitation, difference (A) in capacitation status before and after capacitation, and litter size
Litter size and latitude in a large mammal: the wild boar Sus scrofa.
The probability of producing at least one male calf increased with age ([beta] = 1.8, Odds Ratio = 6.0, AUC = 0.89, P = 0.03, n = 21 dams), but not weight ([beta] = -0.02, P = 0.35) or litter size ([beta] = -0.49, P = 0.68; Table 3).
For example, a review comprising 29 studies on wild boar litter size in Europe did not include any site in Fennoscandia or Russia, i.e.
Most litters appear in early June and the average litter size is very small (3.2 young).
Sow age and weight were positively correlated with fetal litter size in this population.
The significant interaction between the litter size at birth and the dam's age demonstrates that the cannibalistic behavior of the dam may be affected by age and the number of pups born.
Considerable development in farm animal breeding has been made in the last few decades, but doing greater understanding in the development of litter size was very slow before molecular markers became an accessible technology with wide applications in breeding methods.