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Related to littorals: littoral zone, riverine


1. of or relating to the shore of a sea, lake, or ocean
2. Biology inhabiting the shore of a sea or lake or the shallow waters near the shore
3. a coastal or shore region



the ecological zone of the sea floor which is flooded during high tide and dry at low tide. It is located between the high and low tide marks. The water advances to cover it and withdraws twice every 24 hours. The littoral is bounded on the high end by the supralittoral zone and on the low end by the sublittoral zone. Some foreign researchers call the entire floor of marine bodies of water to a depth of 200 m the littoral (the continental step, the zone of plant distribution), while others define it as extending to depths of 40–50 m (the lower boundary of wave action). Depending on the slope of the floor and the amplitude of fluctuations of high and low tides, the width of the littoral may range from a few meters to many kilometers. Depending on the nature of the ground, there are silt, sand, pebble, and rock littoral zones.

References in periodicals archive ?
In this area, the contribution of Japan has been most prominent, but other user states such as the United States, China and South Korea have also assisted the littoral states to manage the Straits in various capacities.
Aside from financial contributions and technical assistance, several notable initiatives have been launched involving cooperation between regional naval forces and maritime security enforcement agencies that have contributed to confidence and capacity building among the littoral states and between them and the international users of the sea lanes.
Rather than viewing such initiatives in the narrow context of the rich assisting the poor, MCMs in the Straits should be seen as a means to provide the littoral states with the resources to manage the sea lane more efficiently in a manner that meets their national interests and the expectations of international users.
Institutional measures to facilitate MCMs for the management of the Straits were put in place by the littoral states for several decades.
The establishment of the Tripartite Technical Experts Group (TTEG) by the littoral states in 1971 was a pivotal development in the management of traffic and environmental protection in the Straits and paved the way for the facilitation of MCMs.
Providing navigational safety to ships traversing the Straits is core to MCM and complements the efforts of the littoral states, whether taken individually or collectively, in this area.
42) The conduct of multilateral shore exercises involving the littoral states, first held in Singapore in January 2007, is meant to boost security cooperation in the Straits among the littoral states.
Underlining the resolve of the littoral states to safeguard the Straits from the scourge of terrorism has been the adoption of many maritime security measures post 9/11.
MSP, comprising the Malacca Straits Sea Patrols, the "Eyes in the Sky" air-sea surveillance component and the Intelligence Exchange Group, plus a Joint Coordination Committee, is testimony to the close cooperation among the littoral states to secure the Straits from the threat of piracy.
It is a measure of the close cooperation among the littoral states and the prevailing amicable mood in their relations that the Cooperative Mechanism has been realized and made operational.
First and foremost is the principle of the sanctity of the territorial sovereignty, sovereign rights and jurisdiction of the littoral states of the Straits.
The flourishing of efforts among the littoral states and between them and other users augurs well for safety and security in the Straits while preserving the sovereign rights of the littoral states.