livery companies


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Related to livery companies: Great Twelve City Livery Companies

livery companies,

London trade guildsguilds
or gilds,
economic and social associations of persons engaging in the same business or craft, typical of Western Europe in the Middle Ages. Membership was by profession or craft, and the primary function was to establish local control over that profession or
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 incorporated by royal charter, deriving their name from the assumption of distinctive dress (livery) by their members. Edward III granted the first charters in the 14th cent., and most of the existing companies had been incorporated by the 17th cent. Several, however, have been formed in the 20th cent., including the Scientific Instrument Makers and the Air Pilots and Navigators. Liverymen were not artisans or journeymen but rather the controlling elite of their trades. In addition to regulating conditions of apprenticeship and standards of work, they elected the local government of the City of London and had the sole power to confer on members the freedom of the city, a necessary prerequisite to the practice of any trade. They still elect the lord mayor of London, now a purely ceremonial office. By the 18th cent. more competitive trade practices and early industrial expansion eroded the guilds' practical power over their trades, but they retained their roles as administrators of trusts and benefactors of educational institutions. The Mercers founded St. Paul's School as early as 1509, and to the present day the companies continue to endow colleges and scholarships, particularly in the field of technical education. There are currently close to 100 livery companies. Twelve of them, according to an order of precedence established by Henry VIII, are known as the great companies—the Mercers, Grocers, Drapers, Fishmongers, Goldsmiths, Skinners, Merchant Taylors, Haberdashers, Salters, Ironmongers, Vintners, and Clothworkers.

Bibliography

See W. Herbert, The History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London (1937, repr. 1968); W. F. Kahl, The Development of London Livery Companies (1960); G. Unwin, The Guilds and Companies of London (4th ed. 1964).

References in periodicals archive ?
WORSHIPFUL COMPANY'S HISTORY THE Worshipful Company of Woolmen is one of the oldest of the Livery Companies of the City of London, tracing its roots to 1180.
32) Moreover, the Lord Mayor was newly aligned with the monarch as "the chief royal official in the city" and the livery companies' liaison with the sovereign, and the livery companies patronized and oversaw the Shows' composition.
The attorney for the livery companies argued his clients would "suffer irreparable injury to their livelihoods, businesses and industry" should customers be allowed to use the apps.
Under the new rules, livery companies must own and control licenses for livery drivers, and drivers will only be able to have a livery driver's license if they are employed by a livery company.
Some London livery companies began to record payments to players in the early fifteenth century, shortly after the end of the cycle plays that had been performed semi-regularly at Clerkenwell, northwest of the city proper, for some 200 years.
By location, Orlin means material culture, especially architecture and household objects, and institutional archives of all sorts, especially written records from churches, courts, charities, and livery companies.
This paper defines pageant processions as those, such as Lord Mayors' Shows and royal entries, that incorporated obviously dramatic elements, including the speeches and skits written by amateur and professional dramatists and sponsored by the livery companies, as well as those lacking these elements because, as R.
The City livery companies played an important role in ceremony on the Thames and the music that accompanied it.
The stalls will be manned by the Livery Companies of the City of London; their aim is to illustrate the companies' role in today's world.
In fact, the Livery Companies spent the princely sum of 100,000 [pounds] per year of an 800,000 [pounds] budget on "entertainments," mostly in the form of extravagant feasts.
If historians would "look beyond the Guildhall" to the decentralised wards, precincts, parishes and livery companies, they would realise how many thousand adult males actually exercised real power.
Unlike other Livery companies, it is not associated with one trade or profession but works to help young people in Wales develop talent and skills through an annual awards programme of scholarships and bursaries.