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loanwords and loan translations

English takes many of its words from different languages around the world. These words are broadly known as borrowings, and are subdivided into two categories: loanwords and loan translations.
A loanword is a term taken from another language and used without translation; it has a specific meaning that (typically) does not otherwise exist in a single English word. Sometimes the word’s spelling or pronunciation (or both) is slightly altered to accommodate English orthography, but, in most cases, it is preserved in its original language.
A loan translation (also known as a calque), on the other hand, is a word or phrase taken from another language but translated (either in part or in whole) to corresponding English words while still retaining the original meaning.
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(in linguistics), semantic borrowing by means of the literal translation of the separate parts of a word or phrase. A lexical caique is a word created by full morphological substitution, that is, by the translation of each morpheme, for example, Russian pred-met (object) from Latin ob-ject-um or Russian sushchestvitel’noe (substantive) from Latin substantivum. In phraseological caiques, whole expressions are modeled after foreign patterns, as in Russian prisutstvie dukha (composure) from French presence d’esprit or English five-year plan and French plan cinquiennel from Russian piatiletnii plan. A special type of caique is one in which a word is given a figurative meaning, modeled on a foreign word with the same literal meaning, for example, Russian vkus (taste) from French gout or Russian cherta (feature), from French trait. When the inappropriate meaning of a homonymous foreign word is used, an erroneous caique is formed, as in Russian byt’ne v svoei tarelke (“to be out of sorts”; literally, “not in one’s plate”) from the French il n’est pas dans son assiette (assiette, “plate,” “position”). The caiqueis a very common linguistic phenomenon and is primarily literary in origin.


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On the other, if the word were a loan translation from L, why did they use a word for cow as first member?
Many Slavic compounds are clearly loan translations or calques.
Loan translations and semantic extensions are used extensively as a way of using the language's own resources rather than borrowing.
Most of the vocabulary is original Xhosa terms, loan translations and semantic extensions with few borrowed words.
With the aim of assessing the usefulness of two Spanish corpora (corde, diachronic, and crea, synchronic) for lexicological studies, the author studies four semantic Anglicisms and four loan translations. After a rigorous analysis of the data, he concludes that these corpora are indeed good resources for this sort of study.
The total amount of loan translations or calques is 36:
Moody (1996: 406) deletes loan translations from his list on account of the following reasons:
This paper illustrates increases in the use of English in political speeches in post-Suharto Indonesia by analyzing the phonological, morphological, and syntactic assimilation of loanwords (linguistic borrowing), as well as hybridization and code switching, and phenomena such as doubling and loan translations. The paper also examines the mixed public reaction to this increase in English usage.
A number of calques or "loan translations" obtain, which would be most peculiar for an original Greek composition, such as [Greek Text Omitted] to designate a person's age, and the use of [Greek Text Omitted] in the sense of tribe, which is only explicable from the original Hebrew [Greek Text Omitted] that can mean both 'staff' and 'tribe'.