peritonitis

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Related to localized peritonitis: Acute peritonitis

peritonitis

(pĕr'ĭtənī`tĭs), acute or chronic inflammation of the peritoneumperitoneum
, multilayered membrane which lines the abdominal cavity, and supports and covers the organs within it. The part of the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity is called the parietal peritoneum.
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, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs. It is caused by invasion of bacterial agents or irritant foreign matter during rupture of an internal organ, by spreading infection from the female genital tract, by penetrating injuries of the abdominal wall, by dissemination of infections through the blood and lymphatic channels, or by accidental pollution during surgery. Typically, peritonitis is a serious complication of another abdominal disorder, such as appendicitis, ulcers, colitis, or rupture of the gall bladder. Severe abdominal pain, vomiting, prostration, and high fever are predominant symptoms. Treatment includes antibiotic therapy and the identification and elimination of the cause of the infection.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Peritonitis

 

inflammation of the peritoneum. Peritonitis can result from a variety of diseases and traumas of the abdominal organs, including acute appendicitis, perforating gastric or duodenal ulcers, and intestinal obstructions; it can also develop from surgical complications. The causative agents are either cocci or Escherichia coli; when peritonitis is caused by the latter, for example, in perforating appendicitis or perforation of an intestinal tumor, the course of the inflammation can be very severe.

Depending on the distribution of the inflammatory process, peritonitis can be circumscribed, that is, confined to some portion of the abdominal cavity, or diffuse. The clinical picture of acute abdomen consists of the symptoms of diffuse peritonitis— namely, sharp abdominal pain, vomiting, retention of stools and gases in a condition called adynamic ileus, local or diffuse rigidity of the abdominal muscles, marked tenderness upon palpation of the anterior abdominal wall, and systemic intoxication as evidenced by fever, increased heart rate, and neutrophilic leukocytosis.

Chronic peritonitis, which is usually encountered in tuberculosis, is rare. The exudative form is attended by an accumulation of exudate in the abdominal cavity, while the adhesive form is marked by the appearance of massive adhesions. Serous, purulent, fibrocaseous, and septic peritonites are distinguished according to the type of exudate. Peritonitis is treated surgically and can be prevented by prompt diagnosis and treatment of acute abdominal conditions.

REFERENCE

Simonian, K. S. Peritonit. Moscow, 1971.

R. B. KAVTELADZE

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

peritonitis

[‚per·ə·tə′nīd·əs]
(medicine)
Inflammation of the peritoneum.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
The patient was also treated using antibiotics because of the high fever and hyper-CRPemia, which might have been caused by the localized peritonitis around the intestinal tumor.
Novak et al., indicated that percutaneous drainage and IV antibiotic administration is sufficient for treatment of patients in stable condition with localized peritonitis. (10) However, for patients with symptoms of generalized peritonitis, emergency laparotomy and segmental intestinal resection is recommended, as was done in our case.!11)
Infantile granulomatous urachal abscess with acute localized peritonitis and appendicitis.
Niemeier classified gallbladder perforation into three clinical types: type 1 (acute) presentation as generalized peritonitis; type 2 (subacute)--pericholecystic abscess and localized peritonitis; type 3 (chronic)--cholecystoenteric fistula.
The clinical scenario highlights the need for a high index of suspicion in the management of patients with localized peritonitis even in the absence of obstructive symptoms and the presence of normal laboratory markers of inflammation.

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