In 2014, the Montana forest products industry converted 93.1 million board feet (MMBF) of lodgepole pine
and 69.4 MMBF of ponderosa pine into lumber, house logs, pulpwood, posts and poles, log furniture, and industrial fuelwood (Hayes and Morgan 2016).
Both woodchip and biochar treatments were created from small diameter, beetle-killed lodgepole pine
. Biochar was added at an application rate of 20 t [ha.sup.-1] and hand raked into the upper 2-3 cm of mineral soil.
works well with both hand and machine tools.
These previous studies describe lodgepole pine
as a multi-nodal species, which can produce more than one whorl of branches or cones per year.
Homegrown lodgepole pine
is likely to cost a tenner less than a Nordmann fir
Cobalt Technologies announced that it has produced biobutanol from beetle-killed lodgepole pine
feedstock, making it the first company to produce a drop-in replacement for petroleum and petrochemicals from the beetle-affected trees.
An outbreak of Red Band Needle Blight on lodgepole pine
is associated with increased summer precipitation that was beyond the range of previously recorded weather patterns.
When Alex Woods, a regional pathologist for the British Columbia Ministry of Forestry, started investigating stands of dying lodgepole pine
in 1997, he "wasn't looking for a climate change-related story." At first, he didn't see a link between infected forests and red band needle blight, which has now damaged nearly 50,000 hectares of ecologically and economically valuable lodgepole pine
in the province.
Pines - the two pine trees grown commercially for the Christmas tree market are the Scots Pine, Pinus sylvestris that is native to Scotland, and the Lodgepole Pine
, Pinus contorta from Alaska.
The ecosystem has species adapted to >0% disturbance, such as lodgepole pine
(Pinus contorta) serotinous cones that release seeds after fire, and thus complete fire suppression to 0% area burned does not produce a sustainable ecosystem.
Key words: Dendroctonus ponderosa, epidemic, forest management, habitat, lodgepole pine
, moose, Pinus contorta.