The tissues used included kernel 9th day postanthesis, root, node, internode, flag leaf, glume, lemma, palea, lodicule
, stamen, pistil, and rachis at the heading stage of common wheat landrace "Wangshuibai."
18: Lodicule vascularization: 0 = very faint to absent; 1 = prominent.
Primary literature sources included surveys of particular structural attributes of grasses (e.g., lodicules, embryos) and taxonomic monographs; secondary sources include floras and prior reviews of structural variation and taxonomy of the grasses.
In grasses it is a matter of convenience and tradition to identify as a spikelet the combination of one or more florets (each comprising a lemma, palea, lodicules, stamens, and pistil, or in certain grasses one or more of these parts absent) with two proximally situated bracts, the glumes (sometimes one or both absent).
The presence of a palea that subtends the flower and lodicules, these together subtended by a sheathlike bract called a lemma, is the rule in the grasses.
If a palea is present directly below a flower (ignoring lodicules), and if paleas are homologous with prophylls and prophylls only develop on axillary branches, then the floret is not truly terminal.
In Clifford's (1987) interpretation, the occurrence of lodicules in all true florets of the early grasses serves as evidence that most grasses have only subterminal flowers (see the previous section).
The homology of lodicules with other organs in nongrasses is ambiguous.
Lodicules are involved in the opening of florets at the time of flowering (Clayton, 1990).
Although such characteristic grass features as spikelets and lodicules may not have been present in the earliest grasses (see above), the grass-type fruit, with a lateral and well-developed embryo (char.
Three additional characters may be synapomorphies of this group, but can be optimized equally parsimoniously elsewhere: presence of two lodicules (char.
In all five of these genera, the species for which character scores are available have membranous, nonciliate ligules; absence of bicellular microhairs (except possibly Duthiea; see Watson & Dallwitz, 1992); two or three lodicules that are lanceolate, unlobed, and non- or weakly vascularized (including Duthiea, pers.