fallacy

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fallacy,

in logic, a term used to characterize an invalid argument. Strictly speaking, it refers only to the transition from a set of premises to a conclusion, and is distinguished from falsity, a value attributed to a single statement. The laws of syllogisms were systematically elaborated by Aristotle, and for an argument to be valid, it must adhere to all the laws; to be fallacious, it need only break one (see syllogismsyllogism,
a mode of argument that forms the core of the body of Western logical thought. Aristotle defined syllogistic logic, and his formulations were thought to be the final word in logic; they underwent only minor revisions in the subsequent 2,200 years.
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). The term fallacy has come to be used in a somewhat wider sense than the purely formal one. Informal fallacies are said to occur when statements are ambiguous or vague as to the logical form they represent, or when a multiplicity of meaning is present and the validity of the argument depends on switching meanings of a word or a phrase in midstream.
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fallacy

Logic an error in reasoning that renders an argument logically invalid
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Pillar dismissed that idea as a logical fallacy. It is "quite correct that the existing sanctions are one of the major ingredients in the Iranian calculus, and why they are sitting down at the negotiating table," he said.
It's a classic logical fallacy to say "after this, therefore, because of this." (For a funny skit dealing with this fallacy, see the video below.
Richard Nordquist defined it as: "An argument based on the perceived failings of an adversary rather than on the merits of the case; a logical fallacy that involves a personal attack."
A good old down-to-earth geologist or some hoity-toity shelf-stacker?" The second logical fallacy in Mr Duncan Smith's game is that he doesn't seem to realise that the unnamed target of his ire is both a geology graduate and a supermarket worker.
She will realize that her dream was wishful thinking, but will not know that she committed a logical fallacy.
Instead, they prove the logical fallacy of the phrase, post hoc ergo propter hoc - after this, therefore because of this.
By the same logical fallacy that some now exploit the controversy around him to attack Jews and Israel, a pretzel could be twisted to attack capitalism (even that practiced by a socialist).
I write to challenge the logical fallacy of the "straw man" middle school these articles depict and the negative effects associated with it.
Behavioural scientists Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman blame this error of judgement on the logical fallacy called ' availability heuristic'.
The specially selected coordinates achieve this purpose based on a logical fallacy called begging the question in which the thing to be proved is assumed in a premise.
I don't have to resort to a logical fallacy, let alone take issue with Mr Baker's concluding ad hominem.
But what IS there OUGHT not be there, mandates a logical fallacy. In fact, craze for tabloids has even proved fatal in the past.