She speculates that this theme had been so long engrained in the public imagination that perhaps it was a logical symbol
to use for pilgrimage, although she does not explore that idea further.
where b - logical symbol
of switch on position of breaker (b = 1 when breaker is switched on); [bar.b]- logical symbol
of switch off position of breaker ([bar.b] = 1 when breaker is switched off); V--symbol of logic addition (linking/concordance); DC--ddisconnection.
To talk about the epistemic state of a knowledge base, Levesque and Lakemeyer introduce an extra logical symbol
, K, to be able to distinguish what is known from what is true.
I have noted that the explication of the material conditional is, in the first instance, an introduction of a function, not an explication of the logical symbol
that denotes the function.
The presentation combines descriptive prose typical of lower-level mathematics texts with rigorous proofs written in logical symbols
A few abstract logical symbols
also have origins as letters of the alphabet, emptied entirely of their linguistic content and then put to work as true abstractions.
The logical symbols
for "and", "or", "not" and "implies" are used.
For that purpose I will introduce a class-membership language (CML) which helps us understand the formal language written in logical symbols
The concept of fuzziness, "of multivalued quantities, undefined identities, and shifting boundaries" (12), emerged when Russell could not reduce mathematics to logical symbols
, which means that objects are undifferentiated at the microscopic level.
In the first chapter, the basic logical symbols
are given along with their introduction and elimination rules.
Unfortunately, the formal nature of this approach, and its accompanying panoply of mathematical and logical symbols
, make it intimidating to most professional programmers.