long-wall mining


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Related to long-wall mining: Coal mining, continuous mining

long-wall mining:

see coal miningcoal mining,
physical extraction of coal resources to yield coal; also, the business of exploring for, developing, mining, and transporting coal in any form. Coal has been historically important industrially as a source of energy, but air pollution and climate change, which the
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The SBBM technique is mainly used for recycling corner coal pillars, industrial square pillars, and irregular coal blocks as well as the coal beneath buildings, railways, and water bodies, all of which are unsuitable or cannot be exploited by long-wall mining. The SBBM technique also exhibits a lot of advantages such as less investment, short operating period, and quick returns.
Because of the specificity of arrangement in the SBBM working face and the filling of gangues in the gob, SBBM differs from long-wall mining in roof management, thereby leading to different rules and mechanisms of mine pressure and fracture development.
Whereas traditional bord-and-pillar mining had little or no impact on the surface, a collapse of 3 m in the roof of a mine during long-wall mining at a depth of 300m causes subsidence of the surface by about 2m, that propagates in wave-like form as a long-wall extends.
The advance of mines from the Illawarra escarpment, and also from Helensburgh and Appin, towards the special areas of water catchment is shown clearly by solid shading for the historic bord-and-pillar areas, and hatched shading for long-wall mining. The map also shows the large area of historic mining near Tahmoor and Nattai in the northwest.
The change to long-wall mining saw most of these mines closed over several decades.
These include the use of LHDs in bord and pillar mining; the blasting gallery method; wide stall method; long-wall mining; multi-slicing and sub-level caving; and the descending shield system of mining.