Equation of concrete shear resistance is similar to the equation of shear design model given in Eurocode 2 with some parameters that evaluate unique FRP longitudinal reinforcement
The diameter and area of the stirrup is smaller than that of the longitudinal bar, and the corrosion of the stirrup is heavier than that of the longitudinal reinforcement
. This affects the performance of the beam to a certain extent.
Radial reinforcement by an arc-shaped supporting steel plate connected to the tunnel segment and longitudinal reinforcement
by channel section steel to provide longitudinal tensile stress are conducted in the existing tunnel.
In the static flexural test, all of the intact specimens failed in flexure-critical mode, because every specimen had identical details in longitudinal reinforcement
. NC series except NC-D10-S100-F sustained an average flexural strength of 183.1 kN-m.
The load was applied gradually on the beam with an MTS controller-testing machine at the rate of 0.1 kN/s to the first crack appeared and then at the rate of 0.2 kN/s till the yielding of the longitudinal reinforcement
. After that, the load was applied using displacement control at a constant displacement rate of 3 mm/min until failure.
For the longitudinal reinforcement
, simple beam model equations were used and for the transverse reinforcement, Model I recommended by ABNT (2014) was selected.
Slight fluctuations in load are apparent due to progressive cracking of the concrete, which occurs concurrently with strain hardening of the longitudinal reinforcement
across flexural cracks.
The four parameters were the height of the beam h, the width b, the ratio of longitudinal reinforcement
[[rho].sub.1], and the ratio of stirrup [[rho].sub.2].
(ii) Longitudinal reinforcement
: 9 ribbed bars of [phi]12 mm diameter.
Installing the cassette jacks frames with longitudinal reinforcement
and longitudinal reinforcement
device for binding carcass reinforcement concrete construction makes it possible to automate the process, as opposed to linking the armature with hand tools.
a) [A.sub.c] is to be replaced by cross-sectional area of half of longitudinal reinforcement
of the slab;
Subsequently, the outmost longitudinal reinforcement
of the boundary element became yield according to the tested steel bar property.