On the basis of the occurrence of the micro-lamellar shell structure, cross-bladed lamellar structure, regularly foliated structure, pseudopunctae (both out-wardly and inwardly pointed), pores, and possible periostracum-like external organic layer (Vinn & Taylor 2007; Filipiak & Jarzynka 2009) we suggest that the problematic tubeworms with tentaculitid affinities were phylogenetically closely linked to lophophorates (e.g.
The group likely shares affinities with lophophorates.
Convergence in the feeding apparatuses of lophophorates
and pterobranch hemichordates revealed by 18S rDNA: an interpretation.
Function of lateral cilia in suspension feeding of lophophorates
(Brachiopoda, Phoronida, Ectoprocta).
Reproduction of marine invertebrates, echinodermata and lophophorates
. Volume VI.
Calcitic semi-nacre is much more common in lophophorates
(Taylor & Weedon 2000).
Nonfeeding larvae have evolved from feeding larvae many times within the echinoderms, hemichordates, lophophorates
, polychaetes, gastropods, bivalves, crustaceans, and other taxa (Strathmann 1978).
We report in this study the occurrence of the larval forms of 13 invertebrate taxa, including an hoplitomella larvae of the boring sponge Thoosa, "lophophorates
" larval stages: an actinotroch of phoronids, ciphonaute of bryozoans and lobate of brachiopods.
fits well with the hypothesis that cornulitids possessed setae and were lophophorates
related to brachiopods.
Echinoderms and Lophophorates
. Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, Calif..
The more divergent morphologies present within the Lophotrochozoa confound traditional evolutionary interpretations of many larval and adult characters, especially with regard to the "lophophorates
." More recent studies on the development and larval anatomy of phoronids and brachiopods have expanded our understanding of their evolutionary affinities (Santagata and Zimmer, 2002; Santagata, 2004b; Cohen and Weydmann, 2005).
85-245 in Reproduction of Marine Invertebrates, Volume VI, Echinoderms and Lophophorates