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Lord(religion, spiritualism, and occult)
Lord is an older term for ruler, as in “Mars is the lord (ruler) of Aries.” In the case of the Moon and Venus, traditionally regarded as feminine, the proper term was “lady.” Many astrologers want to retain this term but reserve its use for the ruler of a house. Thus, for example, in a horoscope in which Aries is on the cusp (beginning) of the third house, Mars would be the ruler of Aries and the lord of the third house. Most contemporary astrologers have dropped the term lord and use the term ruler for both relationships. One finds the same distinction between sign and house rulership/lordship in Vedic astrology, where this notion is central to the correct interpretation of a chart.
(1) Originally, in medieval England a general term referring to a feudal landowner (lord of the manor, landlord) and seigneur of his own vassals; the more specific usage referred to a powerful feudal chief and direct supporter of the king—a baron. Gradually, the title of lord was applied collectively to the English upper gentry (dukes, marquesses, counts, viscounts, and barons) and was awarded (from the 14th century) to peers of the kingdom, who formed the upper chamber of the British Parliament (the House of Lords). The title is transferred by male lineage and through seniority but may also be bestowed by the crown (upon recommendation of the prime minister). Beginning in the 19th century, the title was conferred upon not only important landowners, as was previously the case, but upon representatives of large capital, prominent figures in science and culture, and others as well. Prior to 1958, seats in the House of Lords were filled only through inheritance of this title. In 1958 the system of appointment of a part of the membership of the House of Lords by the monarch was introduced. Appointed lords retain their seats for life, but their titles are not inherited. In 1963 hereditary lords received the right to resign their titles.
(2) A component part of the official designation of certain high and local officials of Great Britain—for example, lord chancellor and lord mayor. Lord chancellor—the highest lord of Great Britain—is one of the oldest state offices (established in the 11th century). In contemporary Great Britain the lord chancellor is a member of government and chairman of the House of Lords. For the most part, he carries out the functions of minister of justice. He appoints county judges, heads the Supreme Court, and acts as protector of the great state seal. Lord mayor is a title, retained from the Middle Ages, of the head of local organs of power in London (the City of London) and a number of other large cities (for example, Bristol, Liverpool, and Manchester).
(3) From the 15 to the 17th centuries, a component part of the title of lord protector, which was conferred upon certain high statesmen of England (for example, regents in service of a king who had not yet come of age). In 1653-58, O. Cromwell also bore the title of lord protector.