The ICI 4TM index is the benchmark for Indonesian thermal coal with a low heat value
that is widely used in Asia-Pacific for heating and power generation.
Polyethylene (PE) powder, with average diameter between 2 mm and 3 mm and low heat value
of 46.30 MJ/kg, was used to simulate plastic waste.
The low heat value of the fuel is dependent on the content of the fuel and mathematically this can be describes as follows:
This assumption differs because it applies to the low heat value, which in this case remains constant.
Then return to low heat value
again, the application will continue performs a square wave until the drying process reach to the end.
However, 58 percent of the country's coal is brown coal, a low-grade coal with high moisture content -- between 20 to 40 percent -- and low heat value
Low-rank coal, comprising about half of the world's coal reserves, has a high moisture content and low heat value
. It is also prone to spontaneous combustion.
Adding 25 percent straw to an IGCC plant was predicted to reduce the low heat value
efficiency by 1.4 percentage points if lock hoppers were used.