Substituting (2) into (1), the transfer function of (1 + [beta]) order fractional low-pass filter
is derived as
To compare with the adaptive filtering method, the raw signal is low-pass filtered
at a cut-off frequency of 0.125 Hz.
Based on the transfer function in (3), it is possible to create a block diagram of a desired fractional-order low-pass filter
. A block diagram can be then easily transformed into a circuit scheme of the proposed filter in dependence on used active elements.
Sanyal, "Compact sharp cutoff wide stopband low-pass filter
using defected ground structure and spurline," Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, vol.
Denoising indexes of the three algorithms are shown in Table 3, where LPF stands for the low-pass filter
and NIO indicates that the noise reduction method bases on normalized index optimization mentioned above.
Similarly, a new variable [x.sub.3d] is obtained by a first-order low-pass filter
Second, the raw RTLS signal of each tag is filtered to remove the impulse noise, using either a median filter or an adaptive low-pass filter
. Third, measurements are corrected by a constraint propagation procedure in order to satisfy the following constraints: human anatomic constraints enforcing expected distances between joints and human motion constraints enforcing acceleration and velocity limits.
Nikon has really put an effort with this DSLR, it includes a 24.2 megapixel DX-format CMOS sensor without an optical low-pass filter
and the Nikon's latest EXPEED 4 image processing system.
The image to be sharpened is first processed by a Gaussian low-pass filter
to get a blurred image, and then the Sobel operator is applied to find the edges in the image as well as the gradient of the pixel to be processed.
To verify the obtained result (12), the special simulation was performed with various low-pass filter
passbands: 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, and 1500 Hz.
A detailed design procedure starting from a normalized low-pass filter
circuit model to a microstrip dual-band dual-mode square patch bandpass filter design layout will be demonstrated by employing successive frequency transformations and circuit conversions.