Low-Temperature Carbonization

low-temperature carbonization

[′lō ‚tem·prə·chər ‚kär·bə·nə′zā·shən]
(chemical engineering)
Low-temperature destructive distillation of coal to produce liquid products.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Low-Temperature Carbonization


the processing of solid fuels, such as coal, shale, or peat, by heating them in the absence of air in furnaces at temperatures up to 500°–550°C. During the process, the fuel is broken down into a solid residue called semicoke (50–70 percent yield), a primary gas (80–100 m3/ton), tar (8–25 percent yield), and a water condensate.

Industrial low-temperature carbonization was first employed in the early 19th century for the extraction of illuminating oils from solid fuels; such fuels were later supplanted by petroleum products. During World War I and World War II, a process was developed in Germany for the manufacture of artificial liquid fuel. In later years, improved methods were again used in complex systems for the extraction of tar, semicoke, and gas. The best tar is obtained from shale and boghead coal; the best semicoke is extracted from calcined coal. The yield and quality of products obtained are determined by the nature of the raw material, as well as by the method used and by furnace design.

Furnaces differ in the method by which heat is supplied; they may feature external heating through the walls of the furnace chamber or internal heating by direct contact between the raw material and the heating medium, be it a gas or solid. Furnaces are usually of the continuously operating type. The latest methods of low-temperature carbonization involve the use of a fluidized bed, rapid heating, and other techniques.


Fedoseev, S. D., and A. B. Chernyshev. Polukoksovanie i gazifikatsiia tverdogo topliva. Moscow, 1960.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Shale oil is a product of oil shale low-temperature carbonization. Being for the most part similar to petroleum, it is at the same time rich in nitrogen-,sulfurand oxygen-containing non-hydrocarbons [1, 2].
The extensive lignite pyrolysis, such as coking, gasification, hydrogenation or low-temperature carbonization, had led to a widespread generation of highly polluted wastewater.
It included visits to 12 low-temperature carbonization plants, a small Bergius coal liquefaction unit at the British Fuel Research Station in Greenwich, Franz Fischer's coal gasification center at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Coal Research at Mulheim in the Ruhr, and I.G.
Shale oil is a product of oil shale low-temperature carbonization. It is similar to petroleum, but rich in unsaturated hydrocarbons and nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing organic compounds.
Thermal low-temperature carbonization of dry shale in a continous process of mixing with hot heat carrier in the rotary drum reactor.
On the basis of the research results and the industrial operation of the retorts with circular low-temperature carbonization chambers with a daily capacity of up to 250 t, the design of retorts with a throughput of 1500 t per day was proposed.