8) Electrophysiologic studies can be helpful in identifying active denervation of lower motor neurons
vivax malaria associated bilateral lower motor neuron
Here the diagnosis is lower motor neuron
facial weakness consistent with facial nerve involvement.
ALS causes upper motor neurons, originating from the top of the brain, and lower motor neurons
, originating from the lower part of the brain and the spinal cord, to gradually disintegrate, preventing them from delivering chemical signals and essential nourishment that muscles depend on for normal function.
Motor Problem Site of Injury Spasticity Upper motor neuron (UMN) Dystonia, Athetosis, Ballismus Deep motor neurons (basal ganglia, thalamus Ataxia Cerebellar neurons (cerebellum) Hypotonia Lower motor neuron
Focality of upper and lower motor neuron
degeneration at the clinical onset of ALS.
With few exceptions, motor weakness fits into either an upper motor neuron or lower motor neuron
pattern (Table 1).
The cause of death was amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig's disease, and lower motor neuron
syndrome, which attacks nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
Examination revealed a complete left lower motor neuron
facial palsy; the other cranial nerves were intact.
Idiopathic MND is sometimes used to describe all primary degenerative lower motor neuron
and all upper motor neuron disorders (Swash, 2000).
The diagnosis of Bell's palsy rests on two issues: verification that the lesion is lower motor neuron
, and elimination of any secondary cause for the paralysis.
The simultaneous combination of upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron
dysfunction in clinical manifestation strongly suggests the clinical diagnosis of ALS.