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(Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, A major manufacturer of telecommunications equipment. Lucent makes telephones and telephone systems, large telephone switching computers and integrated circuits and optoelectronics components for communications and computer applications.

The company has a long history in the telecom arena. Its roots go back to 1869 when Elisha Gray and Enos Barton founded Gray and Barton in Cleveland, Ohio, a company that provided parts and models for inventors such as Gray himself. Gray and Barton was later renamed Western Electric Company when Western Union, its major customer, became an investor.

In 1881, American Bell Telephone purchased controlling interest in Western Electric, which became the manufacturing arm of the Bell companies. In 1899, AT&T, which was created 14 years earlier, took over American Bell and Western Electric. In 1925, the already-combined engineering departments of Western Electric and AT&T were turned into Bell Labs, which has become world famous for its research. A year later, Western Electric spun off its electrical distribution operations as Graybar Electric Company, which became the first large company to be bought out by its own employees.

Over the years, the company ushered in the electronic age by developing the vacuum tube. It also invented the loudspeaker, brought sound to motion pictures and introduced mobile communications, the forerunner of today's cellular system. When AT&T was divested of its Bell operating companies in 1984, Western Electric remained with AT&T, but was soon split up into a variety of divisions, including Network Systems, which builds the major switching and telecom equipment. When spun off from AT&T in 1996, Lucent retained all of AT&T's manufacturing units as well as Bell Labs.

In late 2006, Lucent merged with Paris-based Alcatel forming a new entity named Alcatel-Lucent. In early 2007, the new company announced it had acquired Nortel's UMTS radio access business to forward its network development of 3G to 4G technologies. See OFS.

Lucent Has History
Although a new company in 1996, Lucent goes way back, spawning Bell Labs and Graybar Electric and inventing or developing some of the most important technologies in the western world. (Image courtesy of Lucent Technologies.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Bone lesions in Erdheim-Chester disease are mainly localized to the metaphysis and diaphysis of the long bones, which show areas of sclerosis alternating with lucencies. Bone scans show striking symmetrical tracer accumulation in the affected bone segments.
The radiographic metastatic survey yielded diffuse and bilateral appendicular permeative lucencies mixed with sclerosis (Figures 1-3).
Chest x-ray showed multiple cystic lucencies in right mid and lower zones resembling bowel loops and mediastinal shift to opposite side.
Conventional radiograph demonstrates streaky lucencies in the bladder wall.
X-rays revealed lytic, lace-like lucencies of the middle and distal phalanges and erosions of the distal phalanges on both hands (FIGURE 3).
Twenty-three patients showed excellent or satisfactory results; however, 54% showed incomplete or complete lucencies on radiographs.
This showed faint linear lucencies within the soft tissues of the medial thigh on the right (Fig.
This is visualized by periodic acid-Schiff and Jones silver stains as pinholes and basement membrane spikes alternating with lucencies on the outer aspect of the glomerular basement membranes (Figure 8, A).
The 2-view radiographs revealed calcifications within the distal left Achilles tendon in addition to bony lucencies at the posterior aspect of left calcaneus which were consistent with Achilles tendonitis.
These cysts generally are thick-walled and round, and they are visualized as air-contained lucencies. However, in certain diseases such as histocytosis X, the cysts may have irregular borders.
Leukoencephalopathy in normal and pathologic aging, I: CT of brain lucencies. Am J Neuroradiol 1986; 7: 561.
"Sponge Lung" describes the appearance of scattered centrilobular lucencies surrounded by reticular and alveolar opacities, creating the appearance of a sponge on radiographs and CT.