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(Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ, A major manufacturer of telecommunications equipment. Lucent makes telephones and telephone systems, large telephone switching computers and integrated circuits and optoelectronics components for communications and computer applications.

The company has a long history in the telecom arena. Its roots go back to 1869 when Elisha Gray and Enos Barton founded Gray and Barton in Cleveland, Ohio, a company that provided parts and models for inventors such as Gray himself. Gray and Barton was later renamed Western Electric Company when Western Union, its major customer, became an investor.

In 1881, American Bell Telephone purchased controlling interest in Western Electric, which became the manufacturing arm of the Bell companies. In 1899, AT&T, which was created 14 years earlier, took over American Bell and Western Electric. In 1925, the already-combined engineering departments of Western Electric and AT&T were turned into Bell Labs, which has become world famous for its research. A year later, Western Electric spun off its electrical distribution operations as Graybar Electric Company, which became the first large company to be bought out by its own employees.

Over the years, the company ushered in the electronic age by developing the vacuum tube. It also invented the loudspeaker, brought sound to motion pictures and introduced mobile communications, the forerunner of today's cellular system. When AT&T was divested of its Bell operating companies in 1984, Western Electric remained with AT&T, but was soon split up into a variety of divisions, including Network Systems, which builds the major switching and telecom equipment. When spun off from AT&T in 1996, Lucent retained all of AT&T's manufacturing units as well as Bell Labs.

In late 2006, Lucent merged with Paris-based Alcatel forming a new entity named Alcatel-Lucent. In early 2007, the new company announced it had acquired Nortel's UMTS radio access business to forward its network development of 3G to 4G technologies. See OFS.

Lucent Has History
Although a new company in 1996, Lucent goes way back, spawning Bell Labs and Graybar Electric and inventing or developing some of the most important technologies in the western world. (Image courtesy of Lucent Technologies.)
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References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Figure 3: A 35-year-old male with frontal radiograph of the distal right forearm: there is permeative mixed sclerosis and lucency in the distal radial and ulnar metaphysis and epiphysis (arrows).
Computed tomography performed in May 2005 (Aquillion, Toshiba; resolution 300 dpi) of the orbits revealed diffuse involvement of multiple cranial bones by fibrous dysplasia with involvement of the left orbit, nasal cavity, sinuses, and showed replacement of the left orbital roof and the lesser wing of the sphenoid by dysplastic bone with alternating areas of lucency and increased density ("pagetoid" lesion), and narrowing of the left optic canal (Fig.
Computed tomography images taken three months later revealed a pars interarticularis lucency with a jagged fuzzy hair on end appearance noted within the lucency at the left L5 region with minimal compensatory sclerosis of the right L5 pars interarticularis suggesting that ongoing healing process was occurring (See Figure 2).
A computed tomography scan showed multiple small abscesses adjacent to the nonunited fracture, an irregular periosteal reaction around the fracture site, and lucency surrounding the medullary rod, suggestive of osteomyelitis (online Appendix Figure, EID/article/17/11/11-0460-FA1.htm).
On cervical USG the signs as thickness of subcutaneous tissue, heterogeneous appearance and increased lucency in some regions were compatible with subcutaneous emphysema.
Shiseido's 'White Lucency Technology' fades pigmentation fast; our testers noticed clearer skin in just four weeks.
An abscess will appear as lucency or bony destruction.
A central lucency with a variable zone of peripheral sclerosis is the typical pattern; osteolysis and mass effect are frequently present (3).
Causes of respiratory distress in neonates presented on CXR (1,3,4,6,7) Term neonate Premature neonate CXR findings Meconium aspiration Aspiration Infection Infection Increased lung density Transient tachypnoea Transient tachypnoea of Symmetrical or of the newborn (TTN)/ the newborn (TTN)/ asymmetrical Wet lung Wet lung Respiratory distress Focal or syndrome (RDS) diffuse / hyaline membrane disease (HMD) Pulmonary haemorrhage Spontaneous pneumothorax Spontaneous Crescentic pneumothorax lucency Patent ductus / Linear markings persistent foetal Increased circulation vascularity Table III.
The pericardial fat sign is a linear lucency more than 2 mm from the lower heart border, indicating separation of the parietal epicardial fat from the epicardium
A radiologic diagnosis involves right forearm and chest x-ray to check for incidental fractures, or lucency of cortical bone, and/or bone density measurement with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry or ultrasound.