luminism

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luminism

(lo͞o`mĭnĭz'əm), American art movement of the 19th cent. Luminism was an outgrowth of the Hudson River schoolHudson River school,
group of American landscape painters, working from 1825 to 1875. The 19th-century romantic movements of England, Germany, and France were introduced to the United States by such writers as Washington Irving and James Fenimore Cooper.
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. In its concern for capturing the effects of light and atmosphere it is sometimes linked to impressionismimpressionism,
in painting, late-19th-century French school that was generally characterized by the attempt to depict transitory visual impressions, often painted directly from nature, and by the use of pure, broken color to achieve brilliance and luminosity.
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. Its practitioners included Frederick E. ChurchChurch, Frederick Edwin,
1826–1900, American landscape painter of the Hudson River school, b. Hartford, Conn., studied with Thomas Cole at Catskill, N.Y. He traveled and painted in North and South America and in Europe and excelled in panoramic scenes.
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 (in his early career), Fitz Hugh LaneLane, Fitz Hugh,
1804–65, American painter and printmaker, b. Gloucester, Mass. A painter of ships and coastal panoramas, Lane is most notable as a leading figure in American luminism. He illuminated his canvases with warm, glowing yellow and pink skies reflected in water.
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, John F. KensettKensett, John Frederick
, 1816–72, American landscape painter, of the Hudson River school, b. Cheshire, Conn. He began painting while working as an engraver and in 1840 went to England to study.
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, Sanford R. GiffordGifford, Sanford Robinson,
1823–80, American painter, b. Greenfield, N.Y. A major painter of the American movement known as luminism, Gifford, who was influenced by Thomas Cole early in his career, was celebrated for his atmospheric landscapes. He grew up in Hudson, N.Y.
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, and Martin Johnson HeadeHeade, Martin Johnson
, 1819–1904, American painter, b. Lumberville, Pa. He studied briefly with Edward Hicks and in Europe, and later traveled in Central and South America.
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. They painted majestic landscapes and seascapes bathed in the mystical light of a pristine sky with an emphasis on Nature's grand scale.

Bibliography

See B. Novak, Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825–1875 (1980).