in postmastectomy lymphedema; a report of six cases in elephantiasis Chirurgica.
in postmastectomy lymphedema (Stewart-Treves syndrome): ultrastructural and immunohistologic characteristics," Journal of Surgical Oncology, vol.
Specific markers for lymphatic vessels are expressed in both lymphangiosarcoma
and Kaposi sarcoma, therefore a differential diagnosis between the two entities is absolutely necessary [7, 17].
Besides repeated skin infection and affecting quality of life another rare but severe complication of chronic lymphedema was the malignant transforming to lymphangiosarcoma
. It is classically seen in the postmastectomy lymphedematous arm (Stewart-Treves syndrome) but has also been reported in primary lymphedema and chronic filarial lymphedema.
The case was diagnosed as moderately differentiated lymphangiosarcoma
Another form of neoplastic lymphatic disease that is found in cats is lymphangiosarcoma
, which can spread via the lymphatic fluid to the local lymph nodes, lungs, liver, spleen and even skeletal muscle.
Other causes of lymphedema include (a) metastasis or development of obstructive tumors, such as tumors of the axilla or brachial plexus; (b) lymphangiosarcoma
; (c) infection; or (d) axillary vein thrombosis.
It can also cause permanent skin changes and cellulitis, and in severe cases it can lead to lymphangiosarcoma
, a rare form of cancer.