lysin

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Lysin

A term used to describe substances that will disrupt a cell, with the release of some of its constituents. Unless the damage is minor, this action leads to the death of the cell. Lysins vary in the range of host species whose cells they will attack and in their requirements for accessory factors for lysis; the immune lysins are strictest in their requirements. Erythrocytes are lysed by a wide variety of chemicals, including water and hypertonic salt solutions, which displace the osmotic pressure from that of isotonicity. They are also susceptible to surface-active substances, such as saponin. Many bacteria, such as the staphylococcus and the streptococcus, elaborate one or more hemolysins that will lyse erythrocytes from certain, although not all, species of animals. See Lytic reaction

McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Bioscience. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

lysin

[′līs·ən]
(immunology)
A substance, particularly antibodies, capable of lysing a cell.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
We intend to address life threatening infections using our therapeutic product candidates from our platform of direct lytic agents (DLAs), which include lysins and amurin peptides.
Donovan, "Chimeric phage lysins act synergistically with lysostaphin to kill mastitis-causing Staphylococcus aureus in murine mammary glands," Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.
Two of the best-characterized gamete recognition systems studied thus far are the sperm-egg binding proteins, bindin and EBR1 (the egg bindin receptor protein-1) in sea urchins, and the lysin and VERL (the egg vitelline envelope receptor for lysin) proteins in abalone and other gastropods (see reviews by Kresge et al., 2001; Swanson and Vacquier, 2002a; Clark et al., 2006; Turner and Hoekstra, 2008; Palumbi, 2009).
Significantly, says Daniel Nelson, an assistant professor at the University of Maryland's Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, lysins applied directly to bacteria can "chew up" and destroy the cell wall from the outside even in the absence of phages or holins.
After targeting certain bacterium, lysins burst the cell's membrane, releasing its contents and killing it.
The PlyG lysin has treatment value, too, the investigators said.
Their effort includes the analysis and exploitation of natural antimicrobial phenomena such as lantibiotics, bacteriocins and bacteriophage lysins.
The divergence of speciesspecific abalone sperm lysins is promoted by positive Darwinian selection.
- US-based biopharmaceutical company Bioharmony Therapeutics, Inc has entered into a Collaborative Research and Licensing Agreement with German pharmaceutical company Boehringer Ingelheim to develop bacteriophage lysins for the treatment of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter infections, the company said.
Nevertheless, it is striking that the two previous demonstrations of character displacement of sperm-egg compatibility, one on sea urchin bindins (Geyer and Palumbi, 2003) and another on blue mussel lysins (Springer and Crespi, 2007), have involved proteins expressed in sperm.
As examples, consider a) the newer classes of antimicrobial peptides modeled after the endogenous antimicrobials (e.g., defensins, piscidins, and cathelicidins; Toma 2001), b) bacteriophages (viruses that infect only bacteria; e.g., see Intralytix 2002), and c) the enzymes used by phages to destroy their bacterial hosts (e.g., highly species-specific lysins).
Phagelux reportedly utilises phages, lysins and other biologics and related delivery technologies to create antibacterial products and solutions.