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megapixelOne million pixels. Megapixels are the measurement of the resolution of still and video cameras, monitors and scanners. For example, a 16-megapixel (16MP) still camera captures a picture composed of some 15.9 million pixels, each pixel containing a red, green and blue color dot. The image resolution would be 5312x2988 (5,312 pixels across; 2,988 down).
The Megapixel Myth
Because quantity is easier to measure than quality, numbers reign supreme in the high-tech world, and megapixels are no exception. Although the number of megapixels is important, especially if the image is printed 8x10" and larger, the quality of the camera's lens, sensor, zoom capability and processing circuitry is equally meaningful. The only true measure is hands-on. See MPps, pixel, digital camera features and DPI.
|Four Hundred MP Camera|
|While regular cameras range from 10 to 20 MP, Hasselblad debuted the H6D-400C in 2018 with 400 MP. Created to photograph small objects with extreme precision, its Multi-Shot technology takes several exposures that are combined into the final image with Hasselblad's desktop software. Not exactly aimed at the amateur, the camera was introduced at $48,000. (Image courtesy of HASSELBLAD, www.hasselblad.com)|
multiprocessingSimultaneous processing with two or more processors in one computer or two or more computers processing together. When two or more computers are used, they are tied together with a high-speed channel and share the general workload between them. If one fails, the other takes over. Multiprocessing is also accomplished in special-purpose computers, such as vector processors, which provide concurrent processing on sets of data.
Concurrent Instruction Processing
All computers perform simultaneous functions, such as executing instructions while reading from an input device and writing to an output device. CPUs can also execute multiple instructions simultaneously from a single stream of instructions (see pipeline processing). However, multiprocessing refers specifically to the concurrent execution of two or more independent streams of instructions. See parallel processing, SMP, MPP, CMP, bus mastering and fault tolerant.
PPP(Point-to-Point Protocol) The most popular method for transporting IP packets over a serial link between the user and the ISP. Developed in 1994 by the IETF and superseding the SLIP protocol, PPP establishes the session between the user's computer and the ISP using its own Link Control Protocol (LCP). PPP supports PAP and CHAP authentication, as well as EAP, which is a conduit for numerous other authentication methods (see PAP, CHAP and EAP).
Full-Duplex and Multilink
PPP can run on any full-duplex link from POTS to ISDN to T1, etc. On dial-up connections, PPP can hang up a low-quality call and redial. Using Multilink PPP (MLPPP), two modems and phone lines can be bonded together to increase speed.
PPP Encapsulates the Packets
PPP encapsulates high-level protocol packets in HDLC-based frames; for example, IP over PPP (IPCP) for the Internet and IPX over PPP (IPXCP) for NetWare networks, and it can multiplex different protocols over the same circuit. PPP also supports ATM and Ethernet frames for DSL and cable modem hookups (see PPPoA and PPPoE). See PPTP and SLIP.
|PPP and L2TP Together|
|PPP and its counterpart, the Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP), are used together to extend a PPP session across the Internet for remote users.|
|The PPP Stack|
|PPP resides at the data link layer in the stack. Its typical use is accessing the Internet via TCP/IP over an analog modem (RS-232), ISDN or a T1 line. However, PPP can also simultaneously multiplex other transport protocols such as IPX, Appletalk and DECnet.|
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