There are studies on estimation of the metal concentration of macrophytes
growing in natural and metal-enriched water bodies (22, 23, 24, 25).
Divers surveyed fishes, invertebrates, and macrophytes
along three habitats: an energized submarine power cable, a pipe, and a sandy, natural control area to the west of both cables and pipe (Fig.
The non-native macrophyte
hydrilla, although causing problems in many waters, conveys the ecological and angling benefits of native macrophytes
, but its aggressive growth leading to high-density stands of "topped out" (forming a dense surface mat of stems that shades out plant growth below) vegetation can create hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions that diminish hydrilla's value as fish habitat.
Floating aquatic macrophytes
, as well as other types of macrophytes
, due to their structural complexity, play an important role in the trophic structure of fish assemblages as they increase the availability of shelter for forage fish species and juveniles of large species, reducing mortality and influencing interspecific interactions (Mittlebach, 1981; Savino & Stein, 1982).
Moreover, glycolipids of marine macrophytes
contain a high level of PUFAs which are precursors of various oxylipins  and, therefore, may exhibit biological activity [22, 23].
Hydrological characteristics, such as water level and water flow, are significant factors influencing macrophytes
In order to favor the recovery of degraded soils, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the addition of residues (macrophytes
and ash), hydrogel and the reintroduction of microorganisms in a degraded soil, cultivated with jatropha, during the construction of a hydroelectric power plant.
There are still many unanswered questions regarding the effects of macrophytes
mediating trophic interactions in tropical environments.
Chemical composition of essential oils of two submerged macrophytes
, Ceratophyllum demersum L.
Such lakes provide optimal conditions for submerged macrophytes
, with high nutrient availability, plenty of light and warm water temperatures.
Most of the studies on biological responses to the water level fluctuations (WLF) in lakes concern macrophytes
(Leira and Cantonati, 2008).