Exosome uptake through clathrin-mediated endocytosis and macropinocytosis
and mediating miR-21 delivery.
The first mechanism is through uptaking the protein from dying neuron through macropinocytosis
. The second mechanism is through uptaking the protein through exosomes of neighboring cells.
Hoffmann et al., "C1q and mannose binding lectin engagement of cell surface calreticulin and CD91 initiates macropinocytosis
and uptake of apoptotic cells," Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.
During viral entry, the MLD and glycan cap facilitate viral adhesion to host cells, leading to macropinocytosis
Among the possible mechanisms of uptake, macropinocytosis
has also been explored .
Swanson, "A role for phosphoinositide 3-kinase in the completion of macropinocytosis
and phagocytosis in macrophages," Journal of Cell Biology, vol.
There is also an evidence to show that microglia participates in the elimination of fibrillar A[beta] through macropinocytosis
(2) A review of the receptors involved in macropinocytosis
of Flaviviridae  was used.
Adenovirus triggers macropinocytosis
and endosomal leakage together with its clathrin-mediated uptake.
Vaccinia virus uses macropinocytosis
and apoptotic mimicry to enter host cells.
Parker, "The mechanism of cell uptake for luminescent lanthanide optical probes: the role of macropinocytosis
and the effect of enhanced membrane permeability on compartmentalisation," Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry, vol.