The cultural beliefs and customs are part of the macrosystem
. Like most things, it is a very multi-faceted subject and it's a mixture of several facets that help determine why some men and women become great leaders.
Brofenbrenner (1977) categorized the environment according to the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem
. The microsystem reflects settings in which the client comes directly into contact with family, friends, and other primary social networks; the mesosystem reflects a social layer comprised of the interactions between multiple microsystems (Broderick & Blewitt, 2015; Bronfenbrenner, 1977; Lindsay et al., 2017; Smart, 2012).
Below we organize our findings regarding risk factors of the individual, microsystem (i.e., environments in which youth are directly embedded), mesosystem (i.e., interactions between microsystems), exosystem (i.e., settings that indirectly affect the individual), macrosystem
(i.e., cultural context), and chronosystem (i.e., changes over time).
The model expands from the microsystem that includes settings in which the child directly participates, such as the family and playgroup; to the mesosystem, which includes the interactions and communication between two or more settings in the microsystem; through to the exosystem and macrosystem
in which the child does not directly participate, but which have an impact on the child nonetheless, such as educational polices like the NQF.
Such interdisciplinary orientation of the research contributes to a comprehensive, thorough description of the factors and mechanisms of changes in the word-formation macrosystem
at a qualitatively new level.
Although Bronfenbrenner's acclaimed bioecological theory (Bronfenbrenner & Ceci, 1994) takes into account many of the environmental dimensions that affect an individual's development, his model is limited to addressing the purely cultural structures called the microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem
. Bronfenbrenner's theory is a significant contribution to counseling in that it identifies and describes microsystems (such as family and school), the relationships among microsystems called the mesosystem, the exosystem which consists of indirect influences on development, and the macrosystem
which includes the norms and attitudes of the larger culture.
The exosystem defines a nested system which has an indirect impact on a student's development (i.e., university policies, school social events); and the macrosystem
includes the impact of political, cultural, and governmental policies on all the lower systems (i.e., Black Lives Matter Movement, Immigration Ban, Political Climate, Alt-Right movement).
The Ecological Systems theory posits human development and behavior are influenced by factors within different levels of environmental systems (i.e., individual, microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, and macrosystem
I understood stuff about individual-microsystem (family), mesosystem (interactions between two microsystems - so, like, yours with the families of your cousins), exosystem (more removed; the community, your dad's workplace), the macrosystem
(the culture in which we live), and chronosystem (the long-term effects of, say, your parents' divorce on, say, your kids).
Using a phenomenological approach to analyze the outcomes of focus group interviews, the authors identified themes at the ontogenic, microsystem, and macrosystem
Taken together, the cited studies have provided preliminary evidence regarding the relations among the microsystem, the macrosystem
, the chronosystem, and suicide.
Finally, the macrosystem
, the most distal from the youth, consists of the worldview and values supported by the adolescent's culture as reflected in the media and political and economic structures.