# Magic Square

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## magic square,

a square divided into parts with letters or numbers inscribed therein that, whether combined vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, form the same sum or the same word. In ancient times such squares were thought to have magic properties, perhaps connected with the stars. Magic squares have been found in such widely divergent cultures as ancient China, Egypt, and India, as well as W Europe. Example:### Bibliography

See W. S. Andrews, *Magic Squares and Cubes* (2d ed. 1917, repr. 1960).

## square, magic:

see magic square**magic square,**

a square divided into parts with letters or numbers inscribed therein that, whether combined vertically, horizontally, or diagonally, form the same sum or the same word.

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## Magic Square

a square divided into an equal number *n* of columns and rows with the resulting cells containing the first *n ^{2}* natural numbers whose sum in each column, each row, and the two main diagonals is the same [being equal, as can be shown, to (½)

*n(n*+ 1)]. It has been proved that a magic square can be constructed for any

^{2}*n*beginning with

*n =*3. Figure 1, a shows magic squares for

*n =*3 and

*n =*4. There exist magic squares that satisfy a number of additional conditions, as for example, a magic square with 64 cells (see Figure 1, b), which can be divided into four smaller squares each containing 16 cells such that the sum of the numbers of any row, any column, or the main diagonals is the same (130). Magic squares were used as talismans in India and some other countries. The construction of magic squares is a classical example of mathematical games and puzzles.

### REFERENCE

Postnikov, M. M.*Magicheskie kvadraty*. Moscow, 1964.