magistracy


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magistracy

, magistrature
1. the office or function of a magistrate
2. magistrates collectively
3. the district under the jurisdiction of a magistrate

Magistracy

 

(1) A state position in ancient Rome. The origin of the magistracy dates to the time of the establishment of the republic (late sixth century B.C.). Initially all magistracies, except those of the plebeian tribunes, were occupied by patricians, but by the early third century B.C. they became accessible to the plebeians as well. The duties of the magistracies were performed without monetary compensation, and they were short-term (as a rule, one year) and collegial (with the exception of the position of dictator). A distinction was made between ordinary magistracies, which were filled by elections, and extraordinary ones, which were filled by appointment. There was also a difference between the higher magistracies, who had the right to perform the higher auspices and who were elected in the centuriate committees, and the lower ones, who were elected in the tribune committees; the higher and lower magistracies worked, correspondingly, in the centuriate and tribune committees.

Higher extraordinary magisterial positions were those of dictator, master of the horse, and decemvir. Ordinary magistracies included the high magistrates (consuls, praetors, and censors) and the lower ones (including the plebeian tribunes, aediles, and quaestors). All magistrates had the power of potestas, that is, the right to issue decrees within the field of their jurisdictions and to impose penalties; the higher magistrates, except for the censors, held the power of life or death (imperium). The magistrates were attended by a retinue of lictors bearing fasces. The law of Villius (Lex Villia annalis; 180 B.C.) established a sequence whereby minimum ages for each magistracy and the progression from one office to the next were set. The colleges of priests were a specific kind of magistracy.

(2) A term used as a synonym for a juridical administration.

References in periodicals archive ?
He said the government had decided to completely restore the executive magistracy so that it could perform basic duties like price control, removal of encroachments and maintenance of law and order.
In addition, the Superior Council of Magistracy defends the professional reputation of judges and prosecutors.
Price controlling and abandoning hoarding in the absence of local government through magistracy is elite's version of good governance, lacking rationale.
A fourth order constituted the Supreme Council of Magistracy of the Minister of Justice in charge of the work of the President of the Council, with the following members: The president of Supreme Court, together with the following: * Judge Shafi bin Dhafer Al-Haqbani - full-time member at the rank of Chief of the Court of Appeals.
The superior council of the magistracy, whose commitment to judiciary reform would prove crucial over the coming months, according to the report, answered presidential criticism with a statement that repeatedly emphasised the need for better institutional co-operation to fight corruption.
It is a fun way to learn about the history of the magistracy, but also to highlight the connection between actions and consequences and, hopefully, deter involvement in criminal activity.
The inquiry found the behaviour of Mr Harrison, who had been a magistrate since 1997, "risked bringing the magistracy into disrepute" and he was removed.
Boards do not have the powers of a police force or of the magistracy outside of the cricketing world.
Summary: Rabat - The Justice Minister ordered the suspension of two magistrates, members of the Higher Magistracy Council, for disclosing confidential information about the results of the latest Council's session, a statement of the Justice Ministry said on Thursday.
MINGORA, July 11 -- The magistracy system restored in Swat under Nizam-e-Adl Regulations (NARs) is providing cheap and speedy justice to the militancy stricken people of the region.
The Eastern Magistracy in Hong Kong has convicted Ng Kwok Leung, a former account executive of Sun Hung Kai Investment Services, on one charge of market manipulation following an investigation by the Securities and Futures Commission (SFC).
Frattini said, "The arrests have been made in the context of an independent inquiry by the Italian magistracy, in which Italian citizens are also involved.