were extracted from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 culture and purified according to the protocol proposed by Grunberg et al.
. Apart from artificially produced MNPs used in magnetic hyperthermia for killing tumor or pathogenic cells among in vitro and in vivo studies and in clinical trials, magnetosomes
are also employed to kill cancer cells under an AMF.
Schuler, "Formation of magnetosomes
in magnetotactic bacteria," Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol.
Another characteristic of magnetite crystals in bacterial magnetosomes
is the tendency for the crystals to be elongated along the chain length in one of the  directions.
In nature, magnetotactic bacteria (MTBs) is a special kind of bacteria which have many micro magnetic particles named magnetosome
in their bodies.
The process by which the magnetosomes
are made and organized is not completely known .
Among the topics are the self-assembly and application of cellulosomal components, the protein-aided mineralization of inorganic nanostructures, bio-inspired biomolecular supramolecular self-assemblies and their applications, virus-like particles, restoring vision using microbial rhodopsins, and magnetosomes
. Distributed in the US by ISBS.
Recent advance in micro-nano biorobotics has promised a potential remedy for this problem through the prospect of utilizing biocompatible flagellated magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) with nanometer-sized magnetosomes
acting like computer-controlled medical microbots.
These (magnetotactic) bacteria have built-in natural compasses (magnetosomes
) and they can be made to follow the pull from magnetic fields.
Magnetotactic bacteria (ABOVE), which are typically found in oxygen depleted water, grow tiny magnetic crystals called magnetosomes
which they use for navigation.
The researchers focused their study on magnetotactic bacteria, which contain chains of magnetic crystals, called magnetosomes
. They exist all over the globe, living in lake and pond sediments and in ocean coastal regions.
Among the amazing pictures generated by this technique is one of an actin-like filament, MamK, decorated with a chain of iron-containing magnetosomes
in Magnetospirillum, a bacterium that can orient itself in relation to the earth's magnetic field.