mail order


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mail order

1. an order for merchandise sent by post
2. 
a. a system of buying and selling merchandise through the post
b. (as modifier): a mail-order firm

Mail Order

 

a form of nonstore retailing in which orders are received and delivered by mail.

Mail order originated in 1887, when the largest American mail-order houses, Montgomery Ward and Sears Roebuck, were founded; at first, these houses serviced primarily a rural market. Mail order developed in prerevolutionary Russia in the early 20th century, and the largest mail-order businesses were the mail-order departments of the Miur and Meriliz (Moscow), Aleksandr (St. Petersburg), and Petrokokki (Odessa) department stores.

In the USSR, mail order is a complement to the network of stores in small cities and rural settlements where it is economically inexpedient to have stores with full assortments of goods. In 1973 orders by mail accounted for about 30 percent of all retail sales of spare parts for motorcycles, motor scooters, and bicycles; more than 5 percent of retail book sales; and about 3 percent of retail sales of phonograph records. Sales of consumer commodities in stores amount to no more than 25 percent of turnover, whereas mail orders account for 84 percent.

The types of goods retailed through mail order are determined largely by the extent to which particular goods are produced and to which rational norms of consumption and supply have been achieved; in the latter case, this applies primarily to durable goods. Mail order also supplies items in occasional and rare demand having many varieties that are not interchangeable; such items include radio parts, photographic and sports goods, and stationery.

More than 50 percent of mail-order items are handled by specialized and general centers of Posyltorg (Mail-order Trade Office), part of the Ministry of Trade of the RSFSR and the chief organization dealing with mail-order in the USSR. Mail-order operations are also carried out by the mail-order departments of the Gostinyi Dvor department store (Leningrad) and the Central Department Store of the Servicemen’s Trade Enterprise (Moscow), as well as by the enterprises Kniga—Pochtoi (Books by Mail) and Semena—Pochtoi (Seeds by Mail). The Cooperative Mail Order Trade Office, an enterprise of the Central Union of Consumers’ Societies of the USSR, carries on small-scale wholesale trade with the stores of the consumers’ cooperatives, supplying them with goods by mail.

Mail-order trade is developing in other socialist countries as well. In the German Democratic Republic, for example, it is carried out by Versandhaus in Leipzig.

In capitalist countries, the mail-order business is considered to be a supplementary form of selling goods and is carried out by major department stores as well as by mail-order houses. In the developed capitalist countries it is handled by highly mechanized enterprises stocking a wide range of goods; production is controlled by electronic computers. In 1973 orders by mail in retail trade totaled 4 percent in the USA and Great Britain, 5 percent in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1.2 percent in France, 0.5 percent in Italy, and 1 percent in Belgium and the Netherlands. The largest mail-order houses in Western Europe are Necker-mann, Quelle, and Otto Versand (Federal Republic of Germany) and La Redoute and Galeries Lafayette (France). The largest in the USA are Sears Roebuck and Montgomery Ward.

A. I. MIKHALEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Tracks the evolution of mail order and Internet pharmacy in the USA where nearly a quarter of pharmacy turnover is through online channels and compares the factors influencing the American model to those in Europe's main markets
In 2005, about 30% of the employers that belong to the National Business Group on Health, Washington, were requiring employees to use mail order pharmacies for some types of prescription drugs, and about 20% said they wanted to move to "mandatory mail" programs in the next year.
In the year to January 2 operating margins at the mail order businesses increased over 20 per cent.
Nearly all the major players in the established mail order sector have developed [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE I OMITTED] [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE II OMITTED] an online presence.
In the 1977 National Geographic case, the Court addressed a variation of the Sears facts, considering whether the presence in California of two advertising offices of National Geographic, which were unrelated to the mail order division, provided sufficient nexus to require National Geographic to collect tax on its mail order sales to California residents.
The survey also found many mail order firms often use the same processing lab.
Cermak has bought three computers from Gateway, which sells only through mail order, and spent $1,800 to $2,400 for each machine.
The report (which covers France, Italy, the UK, the USA, Spain and Germany) says technological innovations such as automated, computer-controlled warehouses and ordering by free phone services are also dramatically improving the speed and turnaround delivery of mail order goods.
It also appears to put mail order companies on a more even sales and use tax footing with local business owners.
The 2013 Worldwide Electronic Shopping & Mail Order Houses Industry-Industry & Market Report, published annually , contains timely and accurate industry statistics, forecasts and demographics.
A number of studies show that independent pharmacies are the most expensive and mail order the least expensive, with drug chains, supermarkets and discounters falling somewhere in between.