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Music of or relating to the style of jazz that lies between the traditional and the modern
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



an American literary and sociopolitical magazine, published from 1911 to 1962. The magazine was called Masses in 1911–17, Liberator in 1918–24, New Masses in 1926–47, Masses and Mainstream in 1948–57, and Mainstream in 1957–62.

In the first decade of the 20th century, Mainstream attracted progressive writers, including J. Reed, W. O’Neill, and C. Sandburg. It printed a shortened translation of V. I. Lenin’s “Letters to American Workers” and M. Gorky’s memoirs about V. I. Lenin. In the fall of 1919, Mainstream became the organ of the Communist Party of the USA. In the 1930’s, after overcoming sectarian mistakes, Mainstream played an outstanding role in uniting American writers on a broad antifascist and general democratic platform. It printed works by T. Dreiser, E. Hemingway, T. Wolfe, E. Caldwell, and M. Gold.

Mainstream defended socialist realism and democratic and revolutionary national traditions and called for the assimilation of the methods of Soviet literature. In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s the magazine condemned decadent bourgeois art and McCarthyism and spoke out in favor of world peace. During those years, Mainstream printed P. Bonosky, J. H. Lawson, W. Du Bois, J. North, and S. Finkelstein.


Gilenson, B. A. “la videl rozhdenie novogo mira: Publitsistika Dzhona Rida 1917–1920 gg.” Voprosy literatury, 1961, no. 11.
Echoes of Revolt: “The Masses” 1911–1917. Edited by W. O’Neill. Chicago, 1966.
“New Masses”: An Anthology of the Rebel Thirties. Edited by J. North. New York, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The final grades of the mainstreamed students and the regular students were compared, using the Mann Whitney U Test.
At the elementary school level, significant differences between the standardized reading test scores of mainstreamed and regular students were found.
Mainstreamed students received these grades: A, 14.3%; B, 14.3%; C, 57%; and D, 14.3%.
In the junior high schools, no significant difference between the grades earned by the mainstreamed and regular students was found.
Although mainstreamed students earned lower grades in the elementary school, only one student with disabilities across all three schools actually received a failing grade in the mainstream class.
The strong positive relationships between classroom academic behavior and final grades are consistent with earlier work, in which regular teachers described the progress of their mainstreamed students in terms of academic behaviors (Truesdell, 1985).
The comparison of final grades of regular and mainstreamed students indicates that, in the junior high schools, the students with mild disabilities were as successful academically as the regular students with whom they were placed and earned grades similar to their regular class peers.
The mainstreamed students were found to be significantly lower in reading ability than the regular students in the mainstream reading classes; therefore, it is not surprising that their final grades would similarly differ.
What is difficult to explain is why students with mild disabilities were mainstreamed into reading classes in which their classmates were reading at a level significantly higher than they were.
Although final grades of the students in the junior high schools did not differ significantly, many students with disabilities were mainstreamed into the lower track classes where lower expectations for student performance are found than in regular track classes (McDermott & Aron, 1978).
In a study of high school mainstreamed students, Zigmond and Kerr (1985) found that organizational skills and attendance explained only 39% of the variance between successful and unsuccessful mainstreamed students.