mainstreaming


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mainstreaming,

in education, practice of teaching handicapped children in regular classrooms with nonhandicapped children to the fullest extent possible; such children may have orthopedic, intellectual, emotional, or visual difficulties or handicaps associated with hearing or learning. The practice is also called inclusion. Mainstreaming has been of increasing interest since the late 1960s in response to a number of factors: research showing that many handicapped students learned better in regular than in special classes; charges that racial imbalances existed in special education classes; and the civil-rightscivil rights,
rights that a nation's inhabitants enjoy by law. The term is broader than "political rights," which refer only to rights devolving from the franchise and are held usually only by a citizen, and unlike "natural rights," civil rights have a legal as well as a
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 movement with its stress on the rights of the individual. The federal Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975), which stated that all handicapped children are entitled to a "free and appropriate" education in the "least restrictive environment," has been widely interpreted as supporting the expansion of mainstreaming.

Mainstreaming has worked well with those segments of the special student population whose disabilities are compatible with a classroom setting and is felt in general to better prepare special students socially for life after school. It has also helped other school children gain a greater understanding of those with disabilities. It has been controversial, however, with students who have emotional or behavioral difficulties that may be disruptive to the entire class. In addition, some worry that children with special needs cannot be given adequate attention in an integrated class.

References in periodicals archive ?
Responding to a question, Mr Khokhar claimed that they had come to know about some 'behind-the-scenes discussions' regarding mainstreaming of banned outfits and there were talks about the IRA (Irish Republican Army) model.
The second session titled 'Gilgit-Baltistan (GB) Concerns, Reservations and Aspirations: Mainstreaming GB' was moderated by Ahmer Bilal Soofi.
Among the expected outputs of the workshop is a pilot project in agrobiodiversity that includes the recommended elements and structure of a multi- and cross-sectoral coordination mechanism among and between the relevant Asean bodies for mainstreaming, conservation and sustainable use of agrobiodiversity in the Asean region.
Mainstreaming is a scientific concept and the underlying hypothesis of mainstreaming is that differences of demographics, pyschographics, political ideologies and socio-economic differences have quite less impact on the attitude and convictions of those who have extensive social contact with the developed areas and people.
The delegation, while appreciating the role of military for peace and stability of the region, discussed mainstreaming of Fata with General Bajwa.
Mainstreaming is seen as primarily a process of weaning away terrorist organisations from militant, anti-state activities to non-violent, political ones.
MainStreaming provides a global video delivery platform that allows users to distribute the highest quality video on-line in real-time.
Banua, RDC vice chairperson, said the convention served as the regional kick-off activity of the 116th Civil Service Anniversary to underscore the governments commitment towards gender mainstreaming.
Gender mainstreaming in health: looking back, looking forward.
The need for gender mainstreaming in Sudan is urgent, because underdevelopment and poverty are extending all over the country.
Gender mainstreaming (1) is the idea that from inception all policies should be analysed for their gender impact.
However, in claiming an "ethnic" site within the nation, Abraham and Shyrock are acutely conscious of "the growth of any ethnic consciousness as a mainstreaming phenomenon" (p.