majolica


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majolica

(məjŏl`ĭkə, məyŏl`–) or

maiolica

(məyŏl`ĭkə) [from MajorcaMajorca
, Span. Mallorca , island (1991 pop. 602,074), 1,405 sq mi (3,639 sq km), Spain, largest of the Balearic Islands, in the W Mediterranean. Palma is the chief city.
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], type of faiencefaience
[for Faenza, Italy], any of several kinds of pottery, especially earthenware made of coarse clay and covered with an opaque tin-oxide glaze. The term is particularly applied to the ceramic ornaments and figurines of the ancient Egyptians. See also majolica.
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 usually associated with wares produced in Spain, Italy, and Mexico. The process of making majolica consists of first firing a piece of earthenware, then applying a tin enamel that upon drying forms a white opaque porous surface. A design is then painted on and a transparent glaze applied. Finally the piece is fired again. This type of ware was produced in the ancient Middle East by the Babylonians, and the method remained continuously in use. It was extensively employed by the Hispano-Moresque potters of the 14th cent. By the mid-15th cent. majolica was popular in Italy, where it became justly famous through the decorations of the Della RobbiaDella Robbia
, Florentine family of sculptors and ceramists famous for their enameled terra-cotta or faience. Many of the Della Robbia pieces are still in their original settings in Florence, Siena, and other Italian cities, but the finest collections are in Florence in the
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 family. The method is still widely used in folk art.

Bibliography

See G. Liverani, Five Centuries of Italian Majolica (tr. 1960); M. Barnes and R. May, Mexican Majolica in Northern New Spain (1980).

Majolica

 

(1) In the narrow sense, Italian ceramic articles of the 15th to 17th centuries with porous painted bodies and thematic decorations on raw and opaque tin glaze that were applied in such a way that corrections were not possible. Majolica was made in workshops in Faenza, Florence, Cafagiolo, Siena, Urbino, and Castel Durante. In Deruta and Gubbio much luster pottery was made. Italian majolica painting, including portraits and many-figured compositions on decorative dishes, plaques, and panels (for example, the works of Nicola Pellipario), and majolica sculpture (works of the della Robbia family) form a distinctive branch of art.

(2) In the broad sense, majolica includes wares with very porous bodies that are made of fired colored clay and covered with glaze. The pottery is characterized by massive form, a fluid silhouette, a brilliant glaze, and contrasting color combinations.

Majolica was produced in the ancient East (Egypt, Babylonia, and Iran) and in the medieval states of Middle, Central, and Southwest Asia. Between the 14th and the 18th century majolica was manufactured in European countries, including Spain, Germany, and France. In ancient Rus’, majolica was known as early as the 11th century. The architectural majolica of laroslavl’ and Moscow reached the height of its development in the 17th century (window platbands, portals, friezes, figures of saints, tile stoves). In the 18th century, majolica dishes, tiles, and small sculptures that primarily had monochromatic decorations on a white background were produced at the Grebenshchikov Plant in Moscow; polychromatic majolica was manufactured in the Gzhel’ workshops. At the outset of the 20th century, M. A. Vrubel’, V. M. Vasnetsov, A. Ia. Golovin, S. V. Maliutin, and other Russian artists made utilitarian majolica articles. In the 1930’s the Soviet sculptors I. G. Frikh-Khar, I. S. Efimov, and others created such articles.

Since the 1950’s many Soviet and foreign artists and ceramicists have worked with majolica (for example, F. Léger and P. Picasso). Modern majolica is characterized by experimentation and a search for new plastic and picturesque treatments of mass, glaze, and enamel. At present the term “majolica” designates ceramic wares consisting of white or colored faience bodies covered with colored glazes.

REFERENCE

Rackham, V. Italian Majolica. London, 1952.

majolica

A type of pottery decorated with an opaque white glaze and a colored overglaze; a type of faïence tile.

majolica

, maiolica
a type of porous pottery glazed with bright metallic oxides that was originally imported into Italy via Majorca and was extensively made in Italy during the Renaissance
References in periodicals archive ?
This rare Minton majolica pigeon tureen and cover, circa 1860, had a turquoise interior and wicker moulded yellow exterior accompanied by three pigeons on an interlacing branch base bearing oak leaves.
Deruta is the oldest B2B distributor of hand-painted ceramics and majolica from the medieval hill town of Deruta, Italy, into the United States.
Once dried and fired at 930/950[degrees]C degrees, in the case of majolica clay, if you want to obtain a ceramic product it must be glazed, painted and re-fired, this time at a temperature of approx.
Majolica bowls from Coimbra factories have a similar shape, but their decor is different, as seen on specimens from the Mosteiro de Santa Clara-a-Velha (Formigo, 2014: Appendix 371, FF 1069) and the Mosteiro de Sao Jao de Tarouca (Sebastian, 2015: 132, 257).
In addition to Majolica pottery, other trades--nail, iron, steel, and silk industries--found their center here.
Both express an idea of modernity, but whereas Lechner's is curvaceous and highly decorative, the Austrian's was austere, rectilinear: grey granite and aluminium rather than bright majolica.
The bridesmaids carried bouquets of white hydrangeas with accents of majolica white and blush spray roses and sweet Akito roses.
The second is illuminated with examples of works of art from Ancient Egypt and Greece, Asia and Europe, including a suit of medieval armour, two Ming Qilins (mythical East Asian hooved creature), and four designs from the ROM's collection of majolica. Elsewhere you'll find a wonderful depiction of a buffalo robe decorated with a battle scene, surrounded by examples of beadwork, wampum beads and ceremonial pipes.
and painted majolica over--firing, ceramics processes, with which Ontani is concerned (which are so admirably followed by Bottega Gatti and with the constant direction of Davide Servadei, experienced graduate of ceramic art), the attention to detail is paramount.
This paper will also examine the profound and lasting impact that Kraak porcelain had on the ceramic industry in the New World, which responded rapidly to the new demand for tin-glazed earthenware (majolica) imitations of Kraak porcelain once its production in China, came to a halt.
And with its holly border, it's ideal for festive celebrations at this time of year (pictured left It's made from majolica, a type of colourful lead-glazed earthenware pottery popular in the mid-19th century, by one of its leading exponents, George Jones.