malic acid

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malic acid:

see Krebs cycleKrebs cycle,
series of chemical reactions carried out in the living cell; in most higher animals, including humans, it is essential for the oxidative metabolism of glucose and other simple sugars.
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The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Malic Acid


(also called hydroxysuccinic acid), HOOCCH2CH(OH)COOH, a dibasic hydroxycarboxylic acid. Malic acid takes the form of a colorless, hygroscopic, crystalline compound that is readily soluble in water and ethyl alcohol; it has a melting point of 100°C.

Malic acid was first isolated by K. Scheele, who in 1785 obtained it from unripe apples. The L-form of the acid is found in plants either in the free state or as acid salts; the presence of either the acid or salt makes possible the acid reaction of cell fluid. Fruits rich in malic acid include barberries, raspberries, apples, and the berries of the mountain ash; the vegetative organs of succulents, especially Crassulaceae, also contain considerable amounts of the acid. The tobacco plants Nicotiana rustica and Nicotiana tabacum contain the nicotine salts of the acid.

Malic acid is an intermediate in cell respiration—in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and its variant, the glyoxylate cycle. In plants containing considerable amounts of organic acids (for example, rhubarb, begonia, and dock), free ammonia is rendered harmless by the formation of the ammonium salts of organic acids, including malic acid. Malic acid is used by many microorganisms as an energy substrate or a source of carbon. It is formed as a by-product in various types of fermentation.

Malic acid is used in the production of fruit drinks and candies.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

malic acid

[′mal·ik ′as·əd]
COOH·CH2·CHOH·COOH Hydroxysuccinic acid: a dibasic hydroxy acid existing in two optically active isomers and a racemate form; found in apples and many other fruits.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
- In North America, the confectionery and food industry segment accounted for almost 41% of the total market in 2018 owing to high demand for malic acid in products like processed food and hard candies
The TTA (% malic acid) content of fruits gradually decreased during growth and was directly related to the amount of organic acids present in fruits (% malic acid) and reduction in acidity as a result of metabolic changes due to the use of organic acids in the respiratory process, as reported by Maftoonazad, et al.
The obtained results of elemental analysis of acetylated potato starch by malic acid chloride are as follows: 44.47% of carbon has been found, 6.07% of hydrogen has been defined; 44.86% of carbon and 5.79% of hydrogen have been calculated.
(a) Citric (CA) and isocitric (ICA) acids; (b) malic acid (MA); (c) succinic acid (SA); (d) fumaric acid (FA); (e) glutamic acid (GA); (f) lactic acid (LA).
Effect of using malic acid on performance of Japanese quail fed optimal and sub-optimal energy and protein levels.
However, ability of citric acid in solubilized P from NRI was higher than that of lactic and malic acids. Palomo et al [18] reported that concentration of citric acid of >100 umol [L.sup.-1] and > 1 mmol [L.sup.-1] compared to tartaric and oxalic acids is needed to release P from solid phase and will significantly increase P in the soil solution.
Malic Acid and polyphenol-rich apple help maintain healthy elastin while reviving youthful tone and texture.
Ingredients include EcoSafe coral minerals and vitamins D3, K1 and K2 to support healthy bones; GreenGrow, a vegetable source glucosamine; PUREFLEX chondroitin and MSM to help support healthy joints and flexibility; undenatured Bio-Collagen UC-II to promote an immune response when joints are exposed to extreme conditions; and Betaine HCL, calcium ascorbate and malic acid to help maintain proper nutrient absorption.
Escherichia coil 0157:H7 population reduction from alfalfa seeds with malic acid and thiamine dilauryl sulfate and quality evaluation of the resulting sprouts.
The feed acidifiers market could be segmented into three major categories, on the basis of acid types into: Sorbic acid, Citric acid, Butyric acid, Acetic acid, Tartaric acid, Lactic acid, Malic acid, Formic acid, Fumaric acid, Propionic acid, and Benzoic acid, and on the basis of its end users into: Pig farming, Poultry, Cattle farming and others.
Organic acid standards (citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, succinic acid), phenolic acid standards (gallic acid, catechin, caffeic, chlorogenic acid, o-coumaric acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, syringic, vanillic, quercetin, rutin, and pyrocatechin) were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich (St.
Between the two acids, P solubilization was found higher in oxalic compared to malic acid at various rates.