Marcello Malpighi

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Malpighi, Marcello

(märchĕl`lō mälpē`gē), 1628–94, Italian anatomist. A pioneer in the use of the microscope, he made many valuable observations on the structure of plants and animals. He completed HarveyHarvey, William,
1578–1657, English physician considered by many to have laid the foundation of modern medicine, b. Folkestone, studied at Cambridge, M.D. Univ. of Padua, 1602. Returning to London, he became a physician of St.
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's theory of circulation by his observation of the movement of blood through capillaries and recorded this, as well as his work on the structure of the lung, in De pulmonibus (1661). He is noted also for his studies of the structure of glands and of the brain, spleen, liver, and kidneys; of the anatomy of the silkworm; of the embryology of the chick; and of plant tissues. Several anatomical parts bear his name, including a layer in the human skin and the excretory tubules in insects. He was professor at the Univ. of Bologna (1666–91).

Bibliography

See study by D. B. Meli (2011).

Malpighi, Marcello

 

Born Mar. 10, 1628, in Crevalcore; died Nov. 30, 1694, in Rome. Italian biologist and physician. Fellow of the Royal Society of London.

Malpighi studied at the University of Bologna, receiving his degree as M.D. there in 1653. He was a professor at the university from 1656 to 1691. Malpighi was one of the founders of plant and animal microscopic anatomy. Using a microscope that magnified up to 180 times, he studied plant anatomy, described the cellular structure of plants (although he did not understand its meaning), discovered the tracheae, established the presence of ascending and descending currents of matter, and discussed the role of leaves in the nutrition of plants. Malpighi described the lymphoid corpuscles of the spleen (Malpighian corpuscles); the renal glomeruli (Malpighian glomeruli); the excretory organs of Arachnida, Myriopoda, and Insecta (Malpighian tubules); the deep layer of the skin (Malpighian layer); blood cells; the alveoli of the lungs; and the taste buds of the tongue. He also discovered capillary circulation.

WORKS

Opera omnia, vols. 1-2. London, 1687.
Opera posthuma …. London, 1697.

REFERENCES

Lunkevich, V. V. Ot Geraklita do Darvina, 2nd ed., vol. 1. Moscow, 1960. Pages 352-67.
Cardini, M. La vita e l’opera di Marcello Malpighi. Rome [1927].

D. V. LEBEDEV

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References in periodicals archive ?
The development of the Malpighian tubules of Carausius morosus (Orthoptera).
Two new species of Nephridiophaga (Zygomycota) in the Malpighian tubules of cockroaches.
To our surprise, we saw the same tissues--the midgut, Malpighian tubules and fat body--light up in bright green fluorescence.
James P, Kershaw M, Reynolds S, Charnley A (1993) Inhibition of desert locus (Schistocerca gregaria) malpighian tubule fluid secretion by destruxinas, cyclic peptide toxins from the insect pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.
This study examined the pattern of tissue expression of a putative NKCC in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, testing the hypothesis that NKCC is restricted to the Malpighian tubule.
Also included in this landmark work was the observation that spirochetes were present in both the midgut and malpighian tubules of infected ticks.
In this study, we have compared morphological variation within and between species of the melanogaster complex in sexual (testes length and area and the area of the posterior lobe of the genital arch) and nonsexual traits (wing length and width, tibia length, femur length, and length and area of the stalk connecting the malpighian tubule to the pyloric region of the ventriculus).
Giebultowicz of Oregon State University in Corvallis and her colleagues have found biological clocks in the testes of moths and in the fruit fly's Malpighian tubules, excretory organs similar to kidneys.
To analyze the presence of sex chromatin in non-irradiated individuals, Malpighian tubules from male and female T.